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"Anglo-Saxon and Gothic ought long ago to have made a part of the 
education of youth. " — Home Tooke. 






My Lord, 

To no one can this little work be in- 
scribed with more propriety than to Your Lordship. 
From the venerable institutions of our Saxon an- 
cestors Your Lordship derives the title to which 
your conduct in public and in the privacy of do- 
mestic retirement adds so much real dignity and 
lustre. Wiiilst, too, Literature and Science enjoy 
in Your Lordship an enlightened ana zealous pa- 
tron, Your Lordship has ever cherished an earnest 
a 2 

desire to promote the higher and better interests of 
mankind, by diffusing, in richer abundance, the be- 
nefits and blessings of the Gospel, whose propitious 
introduction, celebrated in the Homily now pre- 
sented to the public, rescued our Saxon forefathers 
from idolatry and barbarism, and opened the way 
to the present greatness of our noble land. Long 
may Your Lordship continue to throw a protecting 
arm over the sacred cause of Religion and Virtue, 
as well as lend the fostering hand to Learning and 
the Arts. 

I have the honour to subscribe myself, with every 
sentiment of gratitude and respect, 

My Lord, 
Your Lordship's most obedient humble Servant, 


Brampton, August 1, 1838. 


1 HE Anglo-Saxon Homily on the Birth-day of 
St. Gregory forms one of a series of Homilies and 
Sermons translated from the Latin, and adapted to 
the use of the Anglo-Saxon Church, by iElfric, 
then a monk, but afterwards consecrated to the 
archiepiscopal see of Canterbury, as successor to 
Siric, or Sigeric, in the year 996. To this orna- 
ment of his age and the church are ascribed seve- 
ral other valuable works in theology and philo- 
logy, w r hich, while calculated to render eminent 
service to his contemporaries, prove to succeed- 
ing times that the mantle of Alfred did not fall 
to the ground, and that the impulse which his 
labours and example communicated, in that be- 
nighted era, to literature, long continued to be 
felt. The general object of ^Elfric, in the prepa- 
ration of these Homilies, was, according to his own 


statement, the prevention of heresy, and the cor- 
rection of that tendency to errors, delusive and 
dangerous, which, even at so early a period of the 
history of the Anglican Church, manifested itself 
in varied but unequivocal forms. 

This Homily, like too many other valuable do- 
cuments, long slumbered in the obscurity of MS., 
until, in 1709, it was rescued from oblivion and 
given to the world, w 7 ith the accompaniment of a 
translation, by Miss Elstob, — a name worthily as- 
sociated with the catalogue of learned females of 
whom England can boast. The " dulcis et inde- 
fessa comes " of her Brother's University studies, 
Miss Elstob devoted herself to Letters with an 
enthusiasm and zeal — with an entireness of pur- 
pose and a perseverance of effort — which but few 
of those who profess to despise female talent and 
feminine attainments, exhibit or possess. Would 
that her example might stimulate and her success 
encourage some of the numerous female aspirants 
after literary distinction, at the present day, to 
follow her steps in the same laudable career ! * 

* To the instance of Miss Elstob, may be added the more 
recent, but not less honourable, labours, in the same depart- 
ment, of Miss Gurney, of Keswick, Norfolk, characterized 
by Dr. Ingram as "the Elstob of her age." To this learned 
lady is due the credit of having produced the first literal ver- 
sion of the Saxon Chronicle, printed, at Norwich, in 1819, 
though never published. 


In again presenting the Homily to the public, 
with the appendage of a copious Glossary, instead 
of a Translation, the sole object of the Editor is to 
promote, in however subordinate a capacity, a 
cause in which he has long felt a deep and undi- 
minished interest, — the cause of Saxon Letters. 
Considering the Homily simply in this relation, 
and as offering, in the importance of its subject 
and the comparative purity of its dialect, a pleasing 
and profitable exercise for the student, the Editor 
has confined himself to matters purely philologi- 
cal, and has carefully avoided all the great theolo- 
gical and ecclesiastical questions which it might 
be made to originate, and into the discussion of 
which Miss Elstob has so fully and learnedly and 
zealously entered. Historical disquisitions have 
also been omitted, on similar grounds, and for the 
additional reasons, that the tendency of such dis- 
quisitions to almost interminable extension ap- 
peared incompatible with the wish and the de- 
sign of producing that novelty in Saxon Litera- 
ture, — a cheap book ; — and that it seemed desirable 
to arouse, rather than to lull, a spirit of research, 
and to lead the inquiring mind to historical inves- 
tigation, — always profitable, and peculiarly inter- 
esting when directed to the annals of our own 
country and to the records of our forefathers. The 


Extracts from Alfred's Translation of Bede, and 
from the Saxon Chronicle, have been appended 
with the twofold object of extending, in some de- 
gree, the course of Saxon Reading, and of afford- 
ing a collateral and almost contemporaneous illus- 
tration of facts and dates. 

With regard to the Glossary, it may be remarked 
that, though not so rich as some others in eluci- 
dations from the cognate dialects, it may, without 
presumption, be considered not inferior to any yet 
published in its developement of the composition 
and structure of the Anglo-Saxon, and in refer- 
ences to the treasures of criticism and philology 
which we now so abundantly possess. In its 
preparation, copious use has been made of Mr. 
Thorpe's excellent Analecta, and of Mr. Kemble's 
elaborate Glossary to Beowulf, — by which, as well 
as by their other erudite labours, these two emi- 
nent scholars have rendered the most important 
services to Saxon Literature. It is hoped, there- 
fore, that the Vocabulary will be found calculated 
not only to facilitate the translation of the Homily, 
but also to communicate an extensive knowledge 
of the general principles of the language. The 
Gothic etymons of Saxon terms are occasionally 
assigned, not for unmeaning display, but to con- 
vey some notion of the origin and formation of 


the Saxon, and to lead to farther inquiry into the 
acute philological dissertations and sound gram- 
matical principles of Home Tooke. 

It merely remains to be added, that Mr. Thorpe's 
Analecta Anglo-Saxonica and Apollonius of Tyre 
will succeed this Manual with great advantage, 
and will lead the student into a varied and exten- 
sive and profitable curriculum of Saxon reading. 

The Editor cannot, however, omit to express 
his obligations to the Rev. Dr. Bandinel of the 
Bodleian Library, and to the Rev. R. M. White, 
Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the University of Ox- 
ford, — in the courtesy and kindness of the former 
of whom, in furnishing the transcript from Alfred's 
Bede, to which the Editor had not access, and of 
the latter, in carefully collating Miss Elstob's 
printed Homily with the Junian MS., the legiti- 
mate influence and tendency of real learning and 
of an intimate familiarity with the " liberal arts/' 
are fully and beautifully exemplified. 

The following Works and Authorities, besides 
those already alluded to, have been consulted in 
preparing the Essay and Glossary : — Lye's Anglo- 
Saxon Lexicon, Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Diction- 
ary, Murray's History of European Languages, 
Monboddo on Language, Tooke V .Diversions of 
Purley, Junii Etyrnologicum Anglicanum, Jamie- 
son's Hermes Scythicus, Ingram's Inaugural Lec- 
a 5 


ture and Saxon Chronicle, Turner's History of the 
Anglo-Saxons, Hickes's Thesaurus, M. Casaubon 
de Lingua Saxonicd, Verstegan's Restitution of de- 
cayed Intelligence, BoswortKs and Basic's Anglo- 
Saxon Grammars, &c. 




JN O object of research has furnished more ample 
scope for speculation than the origin of Language^ 
— a subject that must ever be interesting to " arti- 
culate-speaking " man*. As such> it is not sur- 
prising that it has frequently exercised the patient 
investigation of the historian^ and the profound 
reasoning of the philosopher. Yet> in proportion 
as the stores of information and the materials of 
opinion have been augmented^ so,, it would appear^ 
has the range of unauthorized assumption been 
extended^ and a wider sphere opened for the un- 
fettered licentiousness of conjecture. As a neces- 
sary result^ in order to gratify some cherished pre- 
judice^ or to establish some favourite theory ^ the 

* fAspoirav Bs Qv'hoi,. — Anac. Od. III. ftegoirsaji figoTOivty. — 
Horn. II. t S. 285, et alibi. 


direct testimony of history has often been disre- 
garded or perverted^ — the bounds of probability 
transgressed^ — and the subtile web of sophistry 
thrown over evidence otherwise clear and conclu- 
sive. "A great impediment to the science of phi- 
lology/^ observes Dr. Murray, " has been produced 
by a partial acquaintance with the languages of 
this division of the globe; which has led either to 
inaccurate opinions concerning the origin of speech; 
or to a misapplication of such minute facts as in- 
dividuals occasionally possessed. A student in 
Hebrew seeks only for Hebrew words in every dia- 
lect. The learned Bochart found Phoenician every- 
where. A Celtic philologist derives the European 
languages from his mother tongue. A German 
proceeds on similar principles in his inquiries. 
Others fill their pages with etymologies which are 
constrained and absurd; supported by no evidence 
but the shadow of erudition." Thus; too, in re- 
ference to the fundamental languages of our own 
continent^ while some eminent philologists assign 
an Hellenistic origin to the ancient northern dia- 
lects; and find striking illustrations of their views 
in the noble language of Greece ; others^ of not 
less illustrious name; reverse the position, and; 
with equal learning and ingenuity, trace to a hy- 
perborean parentage the classic tongues of South- 
ern Europe. 


Amidst this conflict of theories and opinions, 
all zealously and learnedly maintained, it appears 
highly probable — and the probability is strength- 
ened, if not the fact established, by the erudite and 
laborious researches of modern scholars — that the 
disputants have thus earnestly contended for mere 
figments of the imagination ; and that the polished 
tongues of Greece and Rome, and the more rude, 
but nervous and expressive, speech of Gothic 
tribes, had all a common origin in some primitive 
language, either partially retained in one glorious 
fragment of the Hebrew, or broken up and lost, 
as a language, at the dispersion of the nations. 

But, be this as it may, and whatever room may 
yet be left, on these points, for the fanciful and 
capricious, yet interesting, speculations of the the- 
orist, there can be little uncertainty as to the ori- 
gin of our own majestic English, now spoken and 
understood from the confines of China to the re- 
motest shores of the great continent of America. 

In the fifth century, successive and successful 
inroads established, in various parts of Britain, 
kindred tribes of Saxons from Giotland or Yut- 
land, and from Anglen in Sleswick, who gradually 
drove back into the remote and less accessible di- 
stricts of the island the ancient possessors of the 
soil, the Cymri and Celtae, and introduced, with a 
new population and language, new manners, laws, 


and institutions. Their establishment proved per- 
manent^ notwithstanding the subsequent conquests 
and partial amalgamations of the Danes and Nor- 
mans, and became the basis of the present great- 
ness of England. For, be it remembered, the 
Saxons were not the rude and barbarous people 
that some have chosen to represent them, but 
" brought with them/* as their amiable historian 
testifies, " a superior domestic and moral charac- 
ter, and the rudiments of new political, juridical 
and intellectual blessings. When they had com- 
pleted their conquest, they laid the foundations of 
that national constitution, of that internal polity, 
of those peculiar customs, of that female modesty, 
and of that vigour and direction of mind, to which 
Great Britain owes the social progress which it 
has so eminently acquired." From the bosom of 
this people sprung Alfred, — the noble, the high- 
minded, the patriotic Alfred, — a name dear to lite- 
rature, and more honourably inscribed on the re- 
cords of British history than many more boasted 
names perpetuated only by deeds of conquest and 

Had not the task been already accomplished by 
abler hands, it would still have been foreign to the 
objects of this essay to attempt to show how deeply 
w r e are indebted to our Anglo-Saxon ancestors for 
the foundation of almost all our ecclesiastical and 


municipal institutions, and u how far the study of 
Anglo-Saxon history and literature is connected 
with the original establishment of our laws, liberty 
and religion." The present inquiry is limited to 
the language of this interesting people, and to its 
important bearing on our vernacular idiom. 

The substitution of the Saxon for the Cimbric, 
or ancient British, appears to have been coeval 
and co-extensive with the subjugation and expul- 
sion of the Britons; so that, simultaneously with 
the conquests of the Saxons, their language be- 
came, throughout the country, the regular and 
only medium of oral communication. Almost all 
traces of the British disappeared w r ith the fugitives, 
except " a few " topographical and local designa- 
tions which were allowed by the new occupants to 
remain with but little alteration, or which success- 
fully resisted the sweeping inroads of innovation. 

The subsequent settlement of the Danes in 
England made little impression on the language, 
producing only some slight dialectic variations ; 
but the Norman invasion ultimately opened the 
way to extensive and important, though still not 
radical changes. The Gallo-Norman indeed, — a 
species of the corrupted dialect of the Latin then 
spoken in France, — though zealously patronized 
by William and his immediate successors, and stu- 
diously maintained at court and amongst the no- 


bility who had followed in the train of the Con- 
queror^ as well as in the administration of the law, 
yielded, at length, to the pressure of popular pre- 
judice, — and the language of the vanquished re- 
assumed its sway. It did not, however, come un- 
scathed from a struggle of three hundred years. 
" A considerable number of French words dis- 
placed the pure Saxon terms," and some slight 
external changes were gradually and almost im- 
perceptibly effected in its grammatical modifica- 
tions. Some effect would, doubtless, also be pro- 
duced by the impulse communicated, during the 
Norman dynasty in England, to a spirit of im- 
provement and advancement, in which the lan- 
guage would necessarily undergo such changes, 
and receive such additions, as were likely to result 
from the more general diffusion of knowledge and 
the cultivation of literature, or as would be required 
by the extended intercourse and increasing wants 
of a people awakening from the slumber of ages. 
Even in the Saxon works produced at the dawn of 
learning under the immortal Alfred, if not more 
immediately subsequent to the introduction of 
Christianity, we observe the occasional adoption 
of words from the Latin, especially of ecclesiasti- 
cal terms, to denote objects or express ideas with 
which their altered circumstances and new profes- 
sion then first made the Saxons acquainted, or for 


which they had no corresponding or sufficiently 
appropriate designations in their native tongue. 
This innovation, slight as it was, might have an 
ulterior tendency, not fully developed until the 
more extensive incorporation of the Gallo-Norman, 
and an excited spirit of inquiry, thus added their 
weightier influence. 

From the termination of the Norman supremacy 
and the complete amalgamation of the two nations, 
the progress of innovation in the language con- 
tinued, until it produced 

M Chaucer's well of English undefiled ; " 

from whose age it again underwent a series of ex- 
ternal metamorphoses, by which it was brought to 
its present state of copiousness and perfection, re- 
ceiving, in its career of improvement, rich supplies 
from the never-failing sources of Greek and Roman 
literature, and levying occasional tribute on almost 
every dialect of Europe. Thus, on the firm foun- 
dation of the Anglo-Saxon, w r ith such ornaments 
and appendages as the varying taste or peculiar 
circumstances of succeeding ages supplied, was 
raised the noble superstructure of the modern 
English, of which, as of the magnificent Gothic 
edifices reared by the piety of our ancestors, every 
high-minded Englishman feels justly proud, "And, 
notwithstanding the unworthy complaints that we 


hear of its instability and fluctuation, perhaps few 
languages have stood the test of so many eventful 
centuries and so many political revolutions, and 
yet have retained so much of their original strength 
and splendour " 

The Saxon itself was far from being the rude 
and meagre dialect that some have wantonly or 
ignorantly represented it ; but was, in reality, " a 
very copious language, and capable of expressing 
every subject of human thought/' For it must 
be borne in mind, in reference to this as well as 
to other early languages, that numbers of w r ords 
have passed into oblivion ; since it is manifest, that 
vocabularies and lexicons, compiled exclusively 
from the few manuscripts that learned industry 
has investigated^ could include and embody but a 
small portion of the spoken language of an ancient 
people. Besides this, in the progress of refine- 
ment, Latin or Norman terms were frequently 
adopted^ not from the absence or inaptitude of 
equivalent expressions in the popular dialect, but 
from the caprice of taste, or from the preference 
which writers of Norman extraction would still 
naturally and fondly cherish for the scattered frag- 
ments of the language of their fathers. In fact, 
according to an eminent philologist, e€ instead of 
the penury of words which is said to distress rude 
nations, every Celtic or German tribe had a greater 


range of choice in diction than the orators of 
Greece and Rome." 

" From this primeval source, then, we must 
principally trace the character, the idiom, and ori- 
gin of our native tongue ;" and so deeply are we 
indebted to it, that, as Dr. Hickes states in the pre- 
face to his invaluable Thesaurus, of fifty-six words 
of which the Lord's Prayer consists, only three can 
be claimed by the Gallo-Norman ; while the re- 
maining fifty-three are derived immediately from 
the Anglo-Saxon. To which Professor Ingram 
adds, that, even including the doxology, there will 
still be only six words out of seventy-three not ra- 
dically Saxon. The learned Professor then pro- 
ceeds to the more general calculation, that eight 
out of ten, or, at the most moderate computation, 
fifteen words out of twenty, occurring in our writ- 
ten language or colloquial intercourse, are of Saxon 
derivation ; and this, too, notwithstanding the con- 
tinual discovery of new facts in science, and the 
perpetually-recurring changes in the circumstances 
of the times, requiring the perpetual introduction 
of significant terms of designation. The propor- 
tion is still greater in our provincial dialects, in 
which numerous Saxon words and phrases are re- 
tained almost unchanged. 

These statements, as to the proportionate share 
of the Saxon in the composition of our present 


language, are fully borne out by the best of all 
evidences, — an appeal to facts. The etymological 
analysis of a single passage from almost any of our 
standard writers, would probably be sufficient to 
satisfy the most sceptical ; but Sharon Turner, in 
his admirable history, has entered into an elabo- 
rate exhibition of its correctness by extracts from 
writers of different periods, — from the authorized 
translation of the Bible, whose simple and beauti- 
ful diction, abounding with pure Anglo-Saxonisms, 
no substitution of more elevated terms could im- 
prove, down to the sublimely-mystic phraseology 
of Young, and the inflated style of Dr. Johnson. 

It may be neither uninteresting nor useless to 
inquire briefly into some of the causes of the al- 
most universal neglect of a language w r hich, it thus 
appears, must be regarded as the parent of our 
modern medium of communication, and which en- 
ters so copiously and intimately, not only into the 
verbal constitution of the English, but also into its 
grammatical principles and idiomatic peculiarities. 

One reason that undoubtedly operates most un- 
favourably against the more general diffusion of 
the Anglo-Saxon, is the scarcity and consequent 
enormous expense of published Saxon works, the 
purchase of which would seem to betoken a degree 
of Bibliomanianism of which few are willing to be 


Another cause may probably be found in its in- 
applicability to the purposes and pursuits of a 
commercial and speculative people, which form so 
powerful an inducement to the cultivation of the 
modern languages of continental Europe, and, 
sometimes, even of the barbarous jargon of more 
distant and less polished regions. 

The higher importance, too, attached, from a va- 
riety of reasons, to the Greek and Roman classics, 
which are generally regarded as the depositaries 
of all valuable knowledge, and the great end of all 
education, leads, in many instances, to the impres- 
sion that languages less advanced and less perfect 
can possess no attractions and communicate no 
information, to tempt literary curiosity or reward 
the labour of acquisition. 

The limited extent and meagre state of the pub- 
lished literature of the Saxons, also, as contrasted 
with the ample profusion of works in connection 
with some other of the dead, and especially with 
most living languages, and the consequent impres- 
sion of its poverty and contracted application, 
have, doubtless, deterred many scholars and phi- 
lologists, who delight to revel amidst the ever-va- 
rying and ever-advancing charms of modern and 
living literature, from encountering what they are 
thus led to consider the repulsive aspect of an im- 
poverished and faded dialect. 


Perhaps j however, nothing has contributed more 
to discourage Saxon learning than the absurd but 
long-continued practice of translating Saxon works 
into Latin, and of appending Latin explanations 
to Saxon lexicons and vocabularies. It is, as Pro- 
fessor Ingram shrewdly remarks, to explain obscu- 
rum per obscurius. " The agey" he adds, " is too 
indolent and luxurious to submit to the drudgery 
of learning everything through the medium of a 
dead language." Definitions and translations in 
Persic or Sanscrit would be more consistent, as far 
as affinity is concerned, and almost as valuable in 
point of practical utility. No doubt, the plan ori- 
ginated in the notion, apparently entertained at 
one period, of rendering Latin a sort of universal 
janua linguarurn, — a notion which condemned the 
hapless student to approach the venerable Hebrew, 
and the noble language of Greece, through a for- 
midable phalanx of barbarous Latinity. The illu- 
sion has passed away, but its blinding influence is 
tacitly exemplified by some, even at the present 
day, in their practice and prejudices. 

With respect to the first cause of the neglect 
and declension of Saxon literature, it is to be re- 
gretted that even its great modern advocates and 
restorers have done so little to mitigate or remove 
the evil. Their labours, worthy of all praise in 
some respects, appear to have not merely an espe- 


cial, but an almost exclusive reference to the 
learned and wealthy, and are little adapted, either 
by their recondite nature or expensive form, to 
excite the interest, or to meet the wants, when so 
excited, of students and readers in general. 

In reference to the second reason assigned, it 
may be remarked, that even those involved in the 
absorbing vortex of mercantile pursuits, must ad- 
mit the importance and utility, as well as the de- 
sirableness, of a fundamental and correct acquaint- 
ance with their mother tongue, for reasons inde- 
pendent of all selfish and mercenary calculations 
of profit and loss. The period has happily arrived 
when, in all truly respectable circles of society, the 
magnificence of wealth or the splendour of titles 
avails but little, unaccompanied by moral worth 
and intellectual culture. Besides, the acquisition 
of knowledge and the formation of a taste for lite- 
rature, have an important bearing on the delight- 
ful and rational enjoyment of that retirement from 
the cares of business — the otium cum dignitate — 
to which so many anxiously look forward, but 
w 7 hich, from the defects of early education, or sub- 
sequent neglect of the nobler powers of the mind, 
few are qualified fully to enjoy. 

With regard to the superior attractions of Greek 
and Roman literature, it may not be presumptuous 
to observe, that the study even of those languages 


is not always prosecuted for their intrinsic excel- 
lence or beauty, or for the inexhaustible stores of 
rich and varied knowledge which they open to in- 
tellectual enjoyment, apart from considerations of 
worldly policy. Their splendid treasures which, 
unlike other treasures, increase and expand the 
more they are rifled, would yet much seldomer 
tempt cupidity, or give energy to zeal, if not made 
the golden key to literary distinctions and emolu- 
ments, and to admission into the lucrative and 
honourable pursuits of professional life. Some- 
times, indeed, they are cultivated almost solely for 
the sake of a better and more critical acquaint- 
ance with our own language, as enabling the stu- 
dent to ascertain, by tracing to their etymons, the 
primary import of the words with which, from 
those sources, it is so copiously enriched. But 
how much more powerfully will this argument 
apply to the Anglo-Saxon, from which, as already 
shown, we derive not only the great preponderance 
of words and phrases in daily and familiar use, 
but also the grammatical structure and idiom of 
our vernacular tongue ! 

In regard to the cause next supposed, it is ma- 
nifest that the contempt and neglect to which the 
Saxon has been most unworthily condemned, are 
the sole reasons of the restricted character of its 
literary resources; for whilst the productions of 


Greece and Rome have been augmented and en- 
riched from every available source and presented 
in every alluring form, many precious relics of the 
labours of our venerable forefathers have been al- 
lowed to slumber, undisturbed, amidst the dust of 
libraries, or in the obscurity of almost inaccessible 
archives*. Recent movements, however, in the 
Society of Antiquaries, hold out the pleasing hope 
that this deep stain on our national literature will 
be speedily and effectually wiped away. When 
this hope shall be fully realized, either under the 
auspices and patronage of the learned body re- 
ferred to, or by individual exertion, the skeleton 
from which the refined classical scholar may con- 
temptuously turn away, will expand into a form of 
fair and ample proportions, blooming in renovated 
youth, and rich in all the attributes that claim at- 
tention and respect. Be it remembered too, that, 

* Nihil Anglicano nomine indignius, gentive doctae honestae- 
que turpius opprobrium nullum esse potest, quam, majorum 
codices, antiquitate sua venerandos, mucorem et situm con- 
trahere, aut pulvere foedari, aut blattis rodi, aut carie cor- 
rumpi ; aut, quod reip. literariae perinde damnosum esset, 
tanquam malos angelos in aeternis vinculis sub caligine ser- 
vari, aequo animo ferre posse. Quod quidem neque Galli, 
neque Batavi, neque Dani, neque, qui monumentis suis Sueo- 
Gathicis vetustis publicandis ad gloriam sui nominis maxime 
operam dant, Sued tolerare vellent, id ferre, id pati, id sinere 
posse Anglos, qui eruditione, ac ingenio praestant, Anglum 
quidem piget dicere. — Hickess Thesaurus, vol. i. in praefat. 



even in its present state, Anglo-Saxon strikingly 
illustrates the interesting subject of the formation 
of language, and therefore " possesses a peculiar 
interest and importance to the philologist, as elu- 
cidating the principles of grammatical science, and 
leading to a philosophical theory of language." 

The last cause suggested has less force at the 
present day than at any former period, as the de- 
velopement of more rational views has, in a great 
measure, exploded the absurdity. Still, it is par- 
tially retained ; but, probably, not so much from 
any impression of its superiority or convenience, 
as for the benefit of continental scholars, by whom, 
it may be observed, Anglo-Saxon has been much 
more extensively and successfully cultivated than 
by those on whom it has far more legitimate and 
powerful claims. Yet, hitherto, much less has 
been accomplished through the direct medium of 
our own tongue than the importance of the sub- 
ject demands ; and even the long-promised Saxon- 
English lexicon of Dr. Bosworth has been, until 
very recently, a desideratum. 

It is truly surprising then, that, notwithstanding 
its manifest importance and the strongly-expressed 
convictions of some of our ablest philologists as to 
its utility and necessity, Anglo-Saxon has not long 
formed an established and regular study in our 
schools, and an essential part of a liberal educa- 


tion. If merely studied collaterally with the prin- 
ciples of English Grammar, it would be found pro- 
ductive of important benefit, in throwing a clear 
and unequivocal light on many grammatical and 
etymological points which the most diligent appeal 
to all the stores of classical learning would leave 
in darkness. It is indeed to be regretted, that al- 
most every English grammar adapted to element- 
ary instruction, is established, not on the true 
basis of the Anglo-Saxon, but on a foundation 
with which the English language has little radical 
affinity, and which the searching process of critical 
investigation thoroughly undermines, to the great 
detriment of the noble superstructure. Professor 
Ingram goes so far as to assert, that " a few hours 
attentively dedicated to Saxon literature, will be 
sufficient to overthrow the authority of every dic- 
tionary and grammar of the English language that 
has been hitherto published." And though the 
more recent appearance of several elaborate and 
admirable grammars requires this assertion to be 
received now with some modification, it is still too 
true, especially in reference to the grammars most 
generally adopted in schools. 

The writer cannot conclude this hasty and im- 
perfect view and vindication of the Saxon tongue, 
— hasty from the pressure of sterner duties, and 
imperfect from the limits it was necessary to pre- 
b 2 


scribe, — without expressing a hope that his hum- 
ble labours may induce, at least, a few students to 
enter on a path in which, though the traveller can- 
not repose beneath the olive and the vine, he may 
gather fruits still more pleasing to an English eye 
and more grateful to an English palate. 




vrREGORIUS pe halga Papa Gnjhpcepe ]?eobe 
Spoptol on J?ifum anbpeapban baeje aeptep maen- 
ijpealbum jebeoppum ] haljum gecnypbnyppum 
Irobep pice gepehjlice aptah :• fte rp pihtlice 6n- 
jlipcepe 3eobe TCpoptol- pop^an ]?e he J?uph hip 
paebe 3 panbe up ppam beoplep bijjengum aet-bpaeb. 
*] to Erobep geleapan gebigbe :• QDanige halige bee 
cy"3a3 hi]' maepan bpohtnunje *] hip halij lip. 3 
eac iptopia Knglopum ]?a J?e ^Elppeb cynnij op le- 
ben on Gnglipc apenb :• 8eo boc pppecS genoh 
pputelice be ]nppum halgum pepe :• Nu pille pe 
]?eah pum-^Smj pcoptlice eop be him bepeccan. 
popftan \e peo popepaebe boc nip eop eallum cirS. 
]?eah ]>e heo on Gnjlipc apenb lp :• Bep eabig Papa 
Lrpejopmp paep op ae]?elpe maegfte 3 op eappaepte 
acenneb;. Romanipce pican paepon hip majop. hip 
paebep hafctelropbianup. j Felix pe eappaepta papa 
paep hip pipta paebep :• fte paep ppa ppa pe cpa&bon. 
pop populbe ae]?elbopen :• Tfc he opepptah hip 
ae]?elbopenypp mib haljum ]?eapum ~] mib jobum 
peopcum gejlenbe :• Irpejopiup lp jpecipe naraa 


T e JT e J^ on l^benum gepeopbe Vigilantiup. ]?aet 
if on Gnghpce pacolpe :• fte paep yyyfte pacol on 
gobep bebobum }?a J?a he pylp hepigenblice leopobe- 
3 he pacollice ymb manegpa ]?eoba freappa hogobe. 
3 heom lipep paeg gepputelobe :• J)e paep ppam 
cilbhabe on boclicum lajium getyb. 3 he on ]?aepe 
lane ppa gepaehglice ]?eah ^ on ealpe Romana by- 
pig naep nan hip gehca ge]?uht :• fte gecneopblaehte 
aeptep pipjia lapeopa gebypnunga- 3 nsep popgytel 
ac gepaeptnobe hip lane on paept-hapelum gemynbe- 
he hlob mib |?upptigum bpeopte j?a pleopenban Jape 
J?e he ept aeptep pyppte mib hunig ppetpe ]?pohte 
]?aeplice bealcobe :• On geonglicum geapum ]?a |?a 
hip geogvtS aeptep gecynbe pojmlb Jung lupian 
pceolbe- J?a ongan he hme pylpne to gobe ge^eoban 
3 to e^le ]?aep uplican lipep mib eallum gepilnungum 
opftian :• pitoblice aeptep hip paebep pop^SprSe he 
apaepbe pix munuclip on Sicihan-lanbe. 3 )?aet 
peopo^e bmnon Romana bypig getimbpobe. on 
]?am he pylp pegohce unbeji abbobep haepum bpoht- 
nobe :• Da peopon mynptpu he geglenbe mib hip 
agenum. 3 gemhtpumlice to baeghpaemhce bigleo- 
pan gegobobe :• Done opepeacan hip aehta he 
appenbe on gobep ]?eanpum- 3 ealle hip a&'Selbojien- 
nyppe to heoponhcum pulbpe apenbe :• fre eobe 
a*p hip gecyppebnyppe geonb Romana bujih mib 
psellenum giplum. ^pcmenbum jymmum. ^peabum 
golb ppaetepobe :• Sc aeptep hip gecyppebnyppe he 


)?enobe jobep )?eappum *] lime pylpe ]?eappa mib pa- 
cum paepelpe bepanjen :• Spa pulppemebhce he 
bpohtnobe on angynne hip gecyppebnyppe ppa f he 
mint )?a iu beon getealb on pulppemebpa halgena 
geteal :• fre lupobe pophaepebnyppe on mettum "j 
on bpynce. "j on paecean- 3 on punbpigum jebe- 
bum. ]?epto eacan he ]?popobe pmgallice untpum- 
nyppe- 3 ppa he ptrSlicop mib anbpeapbum untpum- 
nyppum oppete paep ppa he geopnpulhcop ]?aep ecan 
hpep gepilnobe- ]?a unbepgeat pe papa ]?e on ]?am 
tiinan )?aet apoptollice paetl gepet hu pe eabige Irpe- 
gopiup on halgum maegnum ]?eonbe paep- 3 he ]?a 
hme genam op )?aepe munuchcepe bpohtnunge 3 
him to pylpt gepet on biaconhabe ge-enbe-bypbne :• 
Da gelamp hit aet pumum paele- ppa ppa hyt pop 
opt be£- ]?aet Gnghpce cySmen bpohton heopa 
pape to Romana-bypig- *] Irpegopmp eobe be ]?aepe 
ptpaet to ];am Gnghpcum mannum heopa ]?ing 
pceapigenbe :- Da gepeah he betpuxt J?am papum 
cypecnihtap gepette- ]?a paepon hpitep lichaman 3 
paegpep anbphtan men- 3 ae^Sehce gepeaxobe :- 
Erpegopmp ]?a beheolb ]?aepa cnapena plite 3 beppan 
op hpilcepe 'Seobe hi gebpohte paepon- J?a paebe 
him man f hi op Gngla Ian be paepon j f ]?apa J?eobe 
mennipc ppa phtig paepe :• 6pt ]?a Irpegopiup be- 
ppan hpae^ep ]?aep lanbep pole Cpipten paepe )?e hae- 
•Sene; him man paebe f hi hae^ene paepon- T>pe- 
gopiup ]?a op mepeapbpe heoptan langpume piece- 


tunge teah 3 cpae'S- J?ae la pa- f ppa paegpep hipep 
men pynbon ]?am ppeaptan beople unbep-Seobbe :• 
Gpt )?a Irpegopiup beppan hu ]?aepe ]?eobe nama 
paepe )?e hi opcumon. him paep geanbpypb ]?aet hi 
Sngle genemnbe pepon :• Da cpae^S he pihthce hi 
pynbon Hngle gehatene- pojvSan ]?e hi Gngia phhte 
habbaft. 3 ppilctim gebapena^ ]?aet hi on heoponum 
Gngia gepepon beon :• Lyt ]?a Irpegopiup beppan 
hu ]?aene pcype nama paepe ]?e J?a cnapan op alaebbe 
psepon* him man paebe f J?e pcijimen paepon Demi 
gehatene :• Irpegopiup anbpypbe. pael hi pynbon 
Demi gehatene- pop^Sam J?e hi pynb ppam gpaman 
genepobe 3 to Cpiptep milbheopicneppe gecygebe :• 
Iryt ]?a he bepnan hu ip ]?aepepcmecyninggehaten* 
him pep geanbppapob f pe cynmg yGlle gehaten 
paepe :• J^paec ]?a Irpegopiup gumenobe mib hip 
pojibum to ]?am naman. 3 cpae$- hit gebapena^S f 
alleluia py gepungen on j?am lanbe to lope ]?aep J£l- 
mihtigan pcyppenbep :• Irpegopiup ]?a eobe to ]?am 
papam Ipzey apoptohcan petlep. 3 hine baeb- f he 
^ngelcynne pume lapeopap apenbe \e hi to Epipte 
gebigbon mib Irobep pultume. 3 cpae^S- f he pylp 
geape paepe. f peopc to geppemmenne- gyp hit )?am 
papam ppa gehcobe :• Da ne miht pe papa f 
geSapian. ]?eah ]>e he ealh polbe. pop^an ]>e Ro- 
manipcan ceaptpe gepapan nolbon ge^apian f ppa 
getogen man 3 ppa gepungen lapeop J?a buph eal- 
lunga poplete. 3 ppa pyplene ppaecprSe gename :• 


>/6ptep fnpum jelamp J?aet: mycel man-cpealm be- 
com opep }?aepe Romampcpe leobe- 3 aepept ]>one 
papam Pelajmm jeptob ^ buton ylbmje hme 
abybbe :• )?itoblice aeptep ]?aep papam je-enbunje 
ppa micel cpaelm jepeap^ J?aep polcep j?at jehpaep 
ptobon apeptehup jeonb j?a buph buton bupjen- 
bum. ]?a ne miht ppa ]?eah peo Romana buph bu- 
ton Papam punian :• Re ealle f pole ]?one eabijan 
Erpejopium to ]?aepe gejnno^e anmobhee jeceap- 
}?eah )?e he mib eallum maejnum prSepijenbe paepe :- 
Erpejopiup ]?a penb aenne piptol to ]?am Capepe 
QDaupicium pe paep hip paebepa- *] hme halpobe *] 
mycelum baeb- f he naeppe ]?am poke ne je^apobe 
f he mib J?a&p pup'Smyntep pulbpe geupepob paepe. 
popftan ]?e he onbpeb "p he ]?uph ]?one micclan hab 
on populblicum pulbpe ]?e he aep apeapp aet pumum 
paele bepaeht pupbe :• He ]?aep Capepep heah je- 
peca Ixepmanup jelaehte ]?one piptol 3 hme to-taep- 
3 pi3)?an cybbe ]?am Capepe ]?aet eall J?at pole Irpe- 
jopium to papam gecopen haepbe :• ODaupicmp j?a 
pe Capepe J>a&pErobe ]?ancobe. 3 hme habian haet :• 
ftpaec ]?a Irpegopiup pleamep cepte- 3 on bimho- 
pan aet-lutobe :• 3lc hine men gelaehte. *] teah to 
Petpep cipcan ]?aet he ]?ep to papam gehaljob 
pupbe :• Irpejopiup ]?a aep hip habunje f Roma- 
mpc pole pop |?am onpigenbum cpealm ]?ypum pop- 
bum hi to behpeoppunge tihte- ODme gebpo^pa 
)?a leopeptan. up gebapenaS f pe Dobep ppmgle J?e 
b 5 


pe on aep topeapbe onbpeaban pceolbon. f pe hupu 
nu anbpeapbe ] apanbobe onbpeabon :• I/eopenije 
up upe paepnyppe mpaep po^pe gecyppebnyppe. 3 f 
pite )?e pe ^popia^S to bpece upe heoptan heapb- 
nyppe :• 6pne nu )np pole lp nnb ppujibe ]?aep heo- 
ponhcan jjiaman opplajen. *j jehpylce aenhpege 
pynb mib paephcum plyhtum apepte :• Ne peo abl 
]?am beafte ne pope-ptsep3 . ac ge gepeo^S *]? pe ylca 
beaft ]?aepe able poppaba^ :• 8e geplagena br8 mib 
beafte gegpipen aep ]?an \e he to heopungum po^pe 
be hpeopunge gecyppan maege :• ftogiaft pop ]?y 
hpyle pe becume aet-popan gepyhSe )?aep ptpeccan 
beman pe ]>e ne maej )?aet ypel bepepan ]?e he geppe- 
mobe :« Irehpylce eojvS bugigenbe pynb aet-bpobene. 
3 heopa hup ptanbaft apepte :• Faebepap *] mobbpu 
beptanba^ heopa beapneplic- 3 heopa yppnumman 
heom pylpum to poppypbe pope-ptaeppaS :• Uton 
eopnoptlice pleon to heopunge po^pe baebbote ]?a 
hpile J?e pe moton- aep ]?am ]?e pe paeplice plege up 
aptpecce :• Uton gemunan ppa hpaet ppa pe bpeh- 
genbe agylton. j uton mib pope gepitnian f ]?aet 
pe manpulhce abpugon :• Uton poppabian Irobep 
anpyne on anbetnyppe ppa ppa pe pitega up manaft . 
Uton ahebban upe heoptan mib hanbum to Irobe. 
]?aet lp f> pe pceolon J?a gecnypbnyppe upe bene mib 
geapnunge gobep peopcep up-apaepan :• fte pop- 
gipa3 tpupan upe pophtunge pe ]?e ]?uph hip pi- 
tegan clypa^. Nelle ic ]?aep pmpullan beaft- ac ic 


pille f he jecyppe 3 hbbe :• Ne op-tpupije nan 
man hme pylpne pop hippynna mycelnyppe- pitob- 
lice J?a ealban jyltap Nmmeipcpe J?eobe ]?peopa ba- 
5a behpeoppunge hy abylejobe :• 3 pe jecyppeba 
pcea]?a on hip bea^ep cpy^e ]?aep ecan lipep mebe 
jeapnobe :• Uton apenban upe heoptan to Iiobe. 
hpaeblice byft pe bema to ujium benum gebigeb ■ 
pp pe ppam upum ]?pypnyppum beoft gepihtleaht :• 
Uton ptanban mib gemahlicum popum onjean j?am 
onpijenbum ppa miclep bomep :• SoSlice je- 
mahnypp lp ]?am poftan beman gecpeme- j?eah J?e 
heo mannum un]?ancpyp5e jy- pop^anfte pe aep- 
pepta 3 pe milbheopta Erob pill f pe mib gem ah - 
licum benum hip milbheoptnyppe opgan. 3 he nelle 
ppa miclum ppa pe geeapmaft up geyppian :• Be 
)upum he cpaeft ]?uph hip pitegan- Clypa me on 
baege ]?mpe gebpepebnyppe 3 ic pille ]?e ahpaebban 
3 ]?u maeppapt me :• Irob pylp lp hip gepita f he 
miltpian pille him to clypienbum- pe ]?e manaS f 
pe him to clypian pceolon :• Fop ]?i mine gebpo- 
Spu ]?a leopoptan- uton gecuman on ]?am peopftan 
baege ]?ippepe pucan on aepne mopigen 3 mib ept- 
p ullum mobe 3 teapan pmgan peoponpealbe Leta- 
map ]?aet pe ptpeca bema up geapige ]?onne he ge- 
pyhS j? pe pylp upe gyltap ppecaft :• Gopnoptlice 
}?a J?a peo micele menigu aegSep ge ppeopt-habep 
ge munuc-habep menn 3 ]?at leapebe pole aeptep 
)>aep eabigan Erpegopmp haepe on ]?one pobnep-baeg 


to j?on peoponpealbum Letanium geconien* to 
)?am ppySe apebbe pe pope-paebe cpealm. f hunb 
eahtatig manna on )?aepe anpe tibe peallenbe op hpe 
jepiton- ]?a hpyle J?e ]?aet pole ]?a Letaniap pang :• 
3lc pe halga pacepb ne geppac f pole to mannigen- 
ne f hi ]?aepe bene ne geppicon o$ f Irobep milt- 
pung ]?one pieman cpealm geptilbe :• ftpaet j?a Dpe- 
gopmp py^ftan he papanhab unbeppeng. gemunb 
hpaet he gepypn Gngelcynne gemynte y ]?aep pihte 
f luptyme peopc geppemebe :• fre natephpon ne 
mihte J>one Romampcan bipceop-ptol eallunge pop- 
laetan :• Sc he apenbe o'Spe aepenbpacan. ge- 
^Sungene Irobep J?eopap to |?ipum lglanbe- 3 he pylp 
micclum mib hip benum 3 tihtmgum pylpte ]?aet 
j?aepa aepenbpaca bobunge pop^genge 3 Irobe 
paeptm-ba&pe pypbe :• Baepa aepenbpacena naman 
pynbjmp gecigebe- Hguptinup. ODellitup. Laupen- 
tmp. Petpup. Johannep. Juptup:- Bsep lapeopap 
apenbe ye eabiga papa Epegopmp mib manigum 
oftpum munecum to Gngelcynne. 3 hi ]?ipum pop- 
bum to ]?aepe pape tihte. Ne beon ge apyphte )?uph 
geppmc ]>dey langpumep papelbep o]r§e |?uph ypelpe 
manna ymbepppaece- ac mib ealpe anpsebneppe 3 
pylme )?aepe po^an lupe ]?ap ongunnenan 'Sing J?uph 
Irobep pultume geppemmaft. 3 pite ge f eopep 
mebe on j?am ecum ebleane ppa micle mape brS . 
ppa micelum ppa ge mape pop Irobep pillan ppmc- 
aft :• Erehyppumiaft eabmobhee on eallum Jnngum 


Sjuptme ]?oiie ]?e pe eop Co ealbpe jepetton :• ftir 
ppemaft eoppum paplum ppa hpaet ppa je be hip 
mynejunje jepyllaft :• 8e ealmihtija Irob ]?ujih 
hi]- gipe eop jepcylbe- j ge-unne me f ic mage eop- 
ptep geppincep paeptm on ]?am ecan ebleane gepeon . 
ppa f ic beo gemen pamob on blippa eopjiep eblea- 
nep :• Beah ]?e ic mib eop ppmcan ne maege popftan 
]?e ic pille ppmcan :• JXguptinup ]?a mib hip gepe- 
pum f pynb gepiehte peopeptig ]?e penbon be Erjie- 
gojuep haepe oft paefc hi becomon gepunbpulhce co 
Jnpum lglanbe :• On ]?am bagum pixobe y6]?el- 
bypiht cyning on Cantpanabypig • *] hip puce paep 
aptjieht pjiam micclan ea frumbjie oft puft pae :• 
Sgupcmup haepbe jenummen pealhptobap on Fpian- 
cena nice ppa ppa Irnegoniup him bebeab. "j he 
)?unh ]?aena pealhptoba muft J?am cymnge *] hip leobe 
Irobep popb bobobe- hu pe milbheojita haelenb 
mib hip agenne ]?nopunge ]?ipne pcylbigan mibban- 
eanbe alypbe 3 geleappullum mannum heopona nicep 
mpaen geopenobe :• Da anbpynb pe cyning J£pel- 
bniht; Sgupfcine 3 cpaeft- ■)? he paegepie popb 3 be- 
hac him cybbe 3 cpaeft ■ j?aet; he ne mihte ppa hptaeb- 
lice ]?one ealban gepunan ]>e he mib Sngelcynne 
heolb pojilaecan :• Cpaeft f he mopce pneohce J?a 
heoponlican lane hip leobe bobian *] j? he him 3 hip 
gepeptum bigleopan ]?enian polbe- 3 popigeap him 
}?a pununge on Canfcpana byjug peo paep eallep hip 
nicep heopob bujih :• Ongan J>a Tfuguptinup mib 


hip munecum to je-epenlecanne ]?aepa Kpoptola lip 
mib pingalum gebebum. 3 paeccan- 3 paeptnum 
Irobe ]?eopijenbe. 3 lipep popb )?am ]?e hi mihton 
bobijenbe. ealle mibban-eapblice ]?mj ppa ppa ael- 
ppemebe pophogigenbe- ]?a j?mg ana ];e hi to bij- 
leopan behopobon unbepponbe. be ]?am ]?e hi taeh- 
ton pylpe lybbenbe- 3 popi ]?aepe po^paeptnyppe lupe- 
]?e hi bobebon geappu paepon ehtnyppe to ^olijen- 
ne 3 bea^S ppeltan gip hi iSoppton :• ftpaet J?a ge- 
lypbon pop pel maeniga 3 on Dobep naman gepul- 
lobe pupbon . punbpigenbe ]?aepe bylepitnyppe heopa 
unpcea^ije lipep. 3 ppetnyppe heopa heoponhcan 
lane :• Da aet nextan geluptpullobe ]?am cymnje 
y6)?elbypiht heopa claen lipe 3 heopa pmpume be- 
hat. "Sa po^lice ponbon mib mamgum tacnum ge- 
peftebe 3 he ]?a gelypenbe peajvS gepullobe. 3 mi- 
celum ]?a Cpiptenam geappup^Sobe. *] ppa ppaheo- 
ponlice ceaptep gepapan lupobe :• Nolbe pe ]?eah 
naenne to Cpiptenbome geneabian. poji^an 'Se he op 
axobe aet ]?am lapieopam hip haele. f Cpiptep ]?eop- 
bom ne pceol beon geneabob. ac pylp pyllep :• On- 
gunnon ]?a baeghpamlice pop. pel memge epptan to 
gehypenne ]?a halgan bobunge^ 3 poplaetan heopa 
haeftenpcype. 3 heo pylpe ge^Seobban to Cpiptep 
gela]?unge on hine gelypenbe :• Betpeox Jnp um 
gepenbe Kuguptmup opep pae to |?am TCpcebipceop 
Gthepmm opHpela- 3 hehine gehabobe Kngelcyn 
to !Spcebipceop ppa ppa him Irpegopiup aep gepip- 


pobe :• ^ujuptinup )?a jehabob cypbe to hip bi- 
pceopptole "j apenbe aepenbpacan to Rome- 3 cybbe 
]?am eabigan Irpejopie ]?aet Knjelcyn Cpiptenbom 
unbeppenj. 3 he eac mib jeppitum pel a 3injan be- 
ppan . hu him to bpohtnijenbe peape becpeox )?am 
mjhpoppenum polce :• ftpset )?a trpejopiup micel- 
um Dobe ]?ancobe mib blippigenbum mobe f TCn- 
jelcynne ppa jelumpen paep - ppa ppa he p yip geopn- 
lice gepilnobe :• TCnb penbe ongean aepenbpacan 
to ]?am jeleapullum cyninje y6]?elbpihte mib je- 
ppitum- *] maenigpealbum lacum. y o]?pe jeppite 
to TEuguptine. mib anbppapum ealpa ]?a3pa J?mga 
]>e he hi beppan. 3 hme eac J?ipum popbum ma- 
nobe- Bpoftop mm pe leopepta ic pat f ye eal- 
mihtija pela punbpa ]?uph J?e ]?aepa ]?eoba ]?e he 
jeceap gepputela'S . ]>dey ]?u miht blijyian 3 eac on- 
bpaeban :• Bu miht blippian jepiphce f J?aepe }?e- 
obe papl Jmph j?ayttpan punbpe beo$ getojene to 
J?aepe mcunban gipe :• Onbpaeb }?e ppa f?eah f J?in 
mob ne beo ahapen mib bypptigneppe on ]?am tac- 
num ]>e Erob |?uph J?e geppema^. *] ]?u ]?anon on 
ibelum pulbpe bepealle pi)?mnan. ]?anon ]?e }m prS- 
utan on pinrSmynte ahapen bipt :• Irpegopiup 
apenbe eac Suguptme hahge lac on maeppe peapum 
3 on bocuni. 3 )?a3pa apoptola- 3 maptipa peli- 
quiap pamob. 3 bebeab f hip aeptepgengap pymle 
f ]?a3t pallium 3 ]?one epcehabe a3t )?am Spoptoh- 
can pettle Romanipcpe gekvSungepeccan pceolbon :• 



Sujupfcmup gepefcte aeptep ^lj'um bipceopap op hip 
gepepum on gehpilcum bujigum on Gngla ]?eobe- 
3 hi on Irobep geleapan j?eonbe Jmjih punebon oft 
}npum baejSephcum beeje :• 8e eabiga Lrpegopiup 
jebihte mamga halige cpahfc bee- 3 mib micelpe 
gecneopbnyppe Irobep pole to }?am ecan lipe gepip- 
pobe* *] pela punbjia on hiplipe gepophte- 3 pulb- 
ojipulhce )?aep papan pefclep jepeolb xin geap* *j pix 
lnoniSap. 3 ten bajap. 3 prSan on )?ypum baege 
gepat co ]?am ecan petle heoponan pice]* on ]?am 
he leopaft mib Irobe yGlmihfcigum a butan enbe :• 
Smen :• 





P. 19. linel. peobe 

6. pa&b. 

7. manege. 

8. halige . 

10. apenbe. 

11. Sirrum. 

12. Jung. 

12. pceoptlice. 
12. gepeccan. 
14. r y. 
14. eabiga. 

P. 19. 1. 20. bopennyjye. 

21. geglenjbe. 

P. 20. 1. 2. rpype. 

4. ymbe. 

5. peg. 

11. plopenban. 

14. geogoS. 

15. gepeoban. 
20. pegollice. 

22. ba&spamh- 




P. 20. 1.27. syplum. 

P. 22. 1. 16. gamenobe. 

28. £ejrpa?tepob. 

17. cpsep. 

P. 21.1. 1. himjylp. 

20. papan. 

3. angmne. 

24. mihte. 

4. mihte. 

25. eall. 

5. getaele. 

25. poppan. 

6. pynbpigum. 

26. ceaptep. 

7. Da&pco. 

27. gepungen. 

9. oppes. 

28. ppaecpiS. 

1 1 . apopcolice 

P. 23.1. 3. papan. 

feci gepaet. 

4. papan. 

11. eabiga. 

5. cpealm. 

14. gepylpce ge- 

7. mihte. 


8. papan. 

16. cyppmen. 

8. eall. 

19. becpux. 

9. gepmcSe. 

21. aefelice. 

10. pipepigenbe. 

23. hpylcepe. 

11. penbe. 

23. peobe. 

13. micclum. 

26. hpaepep. 

13. gepapobe. 

27. happen. 

18. gepeua. 

28. mnepeapbpe. 

19. p&tfor pat 

P. 22. 1. 2. peobbe. 

20. papan. 

4. opcomon. 

21. net. 

5. genemebe. 

22. bimhopon. 

5. Rihclice. 

23. man. 

6. phte. 

24. paep to pa- 

10. paec pa pcip- 



26. pomampce. 

10. bejie. 

26. cpealme. 

11. pynb. 

28.' leopopton. 

15. ps&f. 

P. 24. 1. 1. onbpebon. 



P. 24. 1. 4. fpopiaS. 



9. poppabaf. 



11. behpeop- 





11. popjn. 



12. pfcpecan. 



16. beapna. 



16. yppemiman. 


19. J?an..p8eplica. 


27. popsypo 1 . 



P. 25. 1.4. gecyppebe. 



5. beaj?ep cpybe. 



8. gepihtlsehte. 



11. gemahnyp. 

P. 27.1. 1. 


13. appaepca. 



13. pile. 



17. ahjiebben. 



21. gebpoSpa J>a 






22. mepigen. 



23. teajmm. 



25. pylpe. 



26. miccle. 



28. jpegopiep. 



P. 26. 1. 1. gecomon. 


... anbpypbe 

2. popepseba. 


auguftme "j 

5, 6. mamgene. 


7. pej?an. 



8. pyftfan. 

P. 28. 1.1. 


8. gemunbe. 


9. angelcynne. 



10. geppemobe. 





P. 28. 1. 8. fohjenne. 
9. beape. 

10. maenige. 
12. unj*c8e(5]ngej\ 
14. iEpelbipmte. 

14. cls&ne lip. 

15. pupbon . . . 

16, 17. jepullob anb 
micclum pa 

17. geappuppobe. 

18. Nolbe ppa. 

20. lapeopum. 

21. pceal. 

22. effton. 

23. popleton ... 

24. happen pcype. 
24. gepeobban. 

26. Apcebipceope. 

27. on apela, in 

27, 28. Angelcynne 
co epcebif- 

P. 29. 1. 2. bij-copj-eole. 

3. angelcynn. 

4. Jnnga. 

5. paepe. 

6. micclum. 

8. Angolcynne. 

9. penbe ept. 

10. geleapjium. 

11. geppitu. 

14. selmihtija. 

15. Se. 

15. paepe ]?eobe. 

17. onbpaebon. 

18. papla. 

18. punbpa. 

19. sype. 

20. bypptijnypre. 

21. 8u. 

22. piftinnan. 
22. ou. 

26, 27. pymblcpone 

27. epcehab. 

28. petle. 

P. 30. 1. 4. bsegfeplicum. 

9. pyftpan. 



Nip up ]?onne y e blip a to popppijienne |?e be ]?am 
eabigan Erpegopie )niph ylbpa manna pejene to 
up becom- pop hpylcum mtmgaii he monab paepe 
f he ppa geopnpulle gymenne by be ymb ^a haela 
upe ]?eobe. pecjea}? hi f pume baege ]?ibep nipan 
come cype-men a op Bpytene. 3 monij cepe jnng 
to ceap-ptope bpohte. 3 eac monije coman to 
bycjeanne ]?a ]?mj :• Da jelamp hit f Irpejopiup 
betpyh o]?pe eac }?ybep com. 3 ]?a gepeah betpih 
o]?ep jnng cepe-cnihtap j?aep jepette paepon hpitep 
hchoman 3 paegepep anbplitan men. 3 ae]?elice ge- 
peaxe- ]?a he ]?a hi gepeah 3 beheolb. J?a ppaegin he 
op hpylcum lanbe 6\>\e op hpylcepe ]?eobe hi bpohte 
paepon. paebe him man f hi op Bpeotene ealonbe 
bpohte paepon. 3 ]?aep ealonbep bigengan ppylcpe 
anpyne men paepon- ept he ppegn hpaej?ep ]?a ylcan 
lanb leobe Cpiptene paepon. |?e hi |?a gyt on hae- 
}?ennyppe gebpolum hpban b :. Ey' him mon to ] 
paebe. f hi )?a gyt hae]?ene paepon- 3 he ]?a op mne- 
peapbpe heoptan ppi]?e ppopete 3 ]?up cp'. Pala 
pa ^ lp paplic f ppa paegep peoph. 3 ppa leohtep 
*]plitan men pceolan agan 3 bepittan J?yptpa ealbop :♦ 

a j-cipmen, MS. Ben. 

b on hse^enna gilbum lijzdon, Ben. 


6pt he ppaegn hpaet peo ]?eob nemneb paepe j?e hi 
op-coman- ]?a anbppapebe him mon f hi Gnjle 
nembepsepon- cpaej? he- Pel ^ ppa maeg. pop)?on 
englelice anpyne hi habba]? . *j eac ppylce gebapena)* 
^ hi engla epenyppepeapbap on heoponum pin :• Da 
gyt he pup]?op ppaegn. *] cpae]?- hpaet hatte peo 
maegj? ]?e )?ap cnihtap hibep op jelaebbe paepon- }?a 
■jppapebe him mon 3 cpae]?. j? hi Depe nembe pae- 
pon :• Cp' he- pel p lp cpeben Depe (be lpa eputi- c ) 
hi pculan beon op jobep yppe abpobene- 3 to 
Epiptep milbheoptneppe gecyjbe- ]?a jyt he acpabe 
hpaec heopa cyning haten paepe. 3 him mon tippa- 
pebe 3 cp'« ^ he v/611e haten paepe. 3 ]?a pleogebe 
he mib hi]* popbum to ]?am naman 3 cpae$. Alle- 
luia, f gebapenaft f te Irobep lop upep pcyppenbep 
on ]?am baelum punjen pi- *] he )?a pona eobe to 
]?am B'. 3 to j?am Papan }?aep Spoptohcan petlep. 
pop]?an he pylpa 3a jyt ne paep B'. gepopben- baeb 
hme f he JSngel ]?eobe on Bpeotene on-penbe 
hpylce huju lapeopap. f 'Suph 3a hi to Cpipte je- 
cypbe beon mihton. 3 cp' f he pylpa geapo paepe 
mib Irobep pultume f paeopc to geppemmanne- 
gip )?am TTpoptolican Papan f licobe- 3 f hip pilla 
paepe- "j hip lypneppe :• Da ne polbe pe Papa ^ ge- 
]?apigean ne d ]?a buphpape ]?on ma- ^ ppa ae]?ele pep 
t) JT a 5e]?ungen. ] ppa gelaepeb* ppa peop ppam him 

c de ird eruti. d sefapan, MS. Cot. 


jepite :• TCc he p ona hpa]?e ]?aep ]>e he bipcop je- 
popben e paep- j? he jeppemebe ^ peojxc^ he lanje 
pilnabe f . j J?a haljan lajieopap hibeji onpenbe- ]?e 
pe aep bepopan paebonS. *] he Sep' Irpegopiup mib 
hip tpymnyppum 3 mib hip gebebum paep gepultu- 
mienbe f heopa lap paepe paeptmbepenbe to Erobep 
pillan 3 to paebe TCngel-cynne :• 

e gehalgobe, Ben. f aeji pilnobe, Ben. 

s neranebon, Ben. 


{Dr. Ingram s Edition.) 

a.d. 560. fteji F^ng ^/6j?elbpiht to Cantpapa pice. 
3 heolb hit Lin. pmtpa :• On hip bagum pen be pe 
halga papa Trpegopiup up pulluht. f pap on ]>am 
tpam *] )?pittigo$an geape hip picep :• 

a.d. 592. ftep Irpegopiup peng to papbome on 
Rome :• 

a.d. 596. ftep Irpegopiup papa penbe to Bpe- 
tene Auguptinum mib pel monegum munecum. *§a 
Dobep popb yGngla ]?eobe gobppellian :• 

a.d. 597. ftep com Suguptmup y hip gepepan 
to Gngla-lanbe :• 

a.d. 601. ftep penbe Irpegopiup pe papa 2Su- 
guptme Spcebipceope pallium on Bpytene* 3 pel 
monige gobcunbe lapeopap him to pultume :• 

a.d. 604. ftepTCguptinupgehalgob n.bipcopap. 
ODelhtum 3 I upturn- ODellitum he penbe to bobi- 
anne Gapt-8eaxum pulluht. 3 yS]?elbypht gepealbe 
GDellite bipcop-petl on Lunbenpic- 3 Iupto he 
pealbe bipcop-petl on ftpopep-ceaptpe pe yp xxiv. 
mila ppam Doppit-ceaptpe :• 

a.d. 606. ftep pop^pepbe Irpegopiup ymb tyn 
geap )?aep )>e he up pulpiht penbe :• 


a.d. 616. ftep v/6j?elbyjihtr. Cantpapa cymnj. 
pop^pepbe. pe sepopt pulpiht unbeppeng Gn^hpcpa 
cmga :• 

On ]>yyey cmjep (Gabbalb) bagum. ye ylca Lau- 
pentiup apceb'* ye pap on Cent aeptep TCugupmie. 
pop^Spepbe iv. Non. Febp. 3 he paj* bebypgeb be 
Tfjuptme :• 8e halija Suguptinup be hip halan 
hue hine habobe to bipcope- to]?i f Cpiptep gela- 
Jmng. ]?e ]?a git paep nipe on Gngla-lanbe- nane 
hpile Eeptep hip pop^prSe naepe butan apcebipcope :• 
Da aeptep him peng GDellifcup to apceb'-bome ye 
pap aep bipcop op Lunben. ]?a pupbon Lunben- 
pape haej?ene :• 


The grammatical references are all made to the Anglo-Saxon Gram- 
mar and Compendium of Dr. Bosworth. 

Observe that an a is frequently added, by paragoge, to the termi- 
nation of adjectives and adjectival pronouns, and is considered 
by some grammarians to be emphatic ; as eappsert, pious ; re 
eapjzaerra papa, the very pious pope ; re ylca, the very same. 
(See Lye, Hickes, Bosworth, &c.) Rask, however, in his valu- 
able Grammar, shows that this is merely the definite form of the 
adjective, since it is invariably preceded by the definite article. 
(See Thorpe's Translation.) In either case, all adjectives of this 
form follow the modifications of the second declension of nouns, 

a. always, for ever, aye. 

Sbbob. Xbbot. l.m. an abbot 

abpoben. (p. p. of abpebian, to take out) taken out, 

plucked, freed, delivered. 
ac. but, for. 
acennan. to produce, beget, bear, bring forth : p. p. acen- 

neb. born, begotten, descended. 
acrian. same as axian. 
abl. 3. f. ail, ailment, disease. 
abrieogan. perf. abpeaj, pi. abpugon. to suffer, endure, 

do, commit. 
abyban. abybban. to kill, destroy. 
abylegian. perf. abylegobe. to destroy, abolish, expiate. 
a&ppe. ever, always. 



aepteji. after, concerning ', according to. 

*Ftep5enga. 2. m. (aepcep, a/fcr, gan, to go.) a successor. 

aegSep. ezYAer. aegSep ge — ge. as well — as. 

gent. 3. f. possession, estate, property. 

iEljzpeb. (eel, a//, ppebe, joeace ; all Peace *. or aelp, an 
elf, pseb, council ; an elfin council -f.) Alfred. 

JEIla. Ella, King of the Deiri. 

aelppembe, -ppemeb. (s&l, all, ppembe, same.) strange, 
foreign, alien, unsuitable ; (alienus.) 

iElmihtig. (ael, «//, miht, might.) almighty. The Al- 

a&nlypi, -liprg. single, one by one. 

aep. ere, erst, before, aepop, before, szjieyt, first, aepftam, 
or sepSan, ere that, antequam. aep bejropan. before. 

aepenbpaca. 2. m. (s&penbe, errand, peccan, to tell.) an 
ambassador, messenger, apostle. 

a&pejt. sepor c. ^/zr^. See aep. 

aepjzeeft. (ap, honour, y&^fast.) honourable, good, pious, 

sepmopgen. sepmopigen. 1. m. (sep, before, mopgen, 
morning.) before morning, early morning, dawn. 

aefc. at, by, near, to. In composition, from, of, out. 

setbpeban. p. p. setbpoben. (aefc, out, bpeeban, to take.) 
to take away, liberate, deliver. 

aetjzopan. (r.opan ?t /bre.) before. 

a&tlutian. (lutian, same.) to hide, lie hid. 

seSele. noble, distinguished. 

seSelbopen. (bopen, born.) noble-born. 

seSelbopennyrr. noble-birth, nobility. 

iEj^elbypiht, -bpiht. (e<5ele, noble, beopht, bright, illus- 
trious ; noble and illustrious.) Ethelbert. 

* Verstegan's Restitution. f Sharon Turner. 


seftelice. (lie.) nobly, 

apanbian. p. p. ajranbob. to prove, experience, try. 

ajrypht. affrighted, afraid. 

agan. perf. ahte. to possess, own, have. 

agen. (ajan, to possess.) own, private. 

ajyltan. (gyle, guilt, sin.) to be guilty of, to commit. 

ahebban. to heave or lift up, raise, exalt. 

ahepan. perf. ahojr. p. p. ahapen. to lift up, exalt. 

ahpaebban. to rid, save, deliver, rescue, redeem. 

alaeban. p. p. alseb. to lead, bring. 

Alleluia. (Heb.) Allelujah. 

alyran. (lypan, same.) to loose, redeem, deliver. 

an, anne, an, or a&n, a&nne, sen. The indefinite Article, 
a, an, or one, constantly used, in Anglo-Saxon, be- 
fore consonants as well as vowels ; as, an tpeop, a 
tree : on Saepe anpe cibe, at the very time. 

ana. (an.) only, once. 

anb. and. In composition, to, back, against, over against, 
before, in the presence of*. 

anbecnyr. 3. f. confession. 

anbppapian. p. p. anbrpapob. (anb, back, ppepian, to 
swear -f.) to answer. 

anbrpapu. 3.f. an answer. 

anbpeapb. (anb, against, or before, peopSan, to be.) pre- 
sent ; because persons present stand against or op- 

* Dr. Jamieson contends that anb is not only equivalent to the 
Greek avn ; but, in its Gothic form, A M^L A.> was probably its 
parent. See his Hermes Scythicus, on avn, where the theory of 
Home Tooke, as applied to anb, is ingeniously controverted. Un- 
doubtedly, anb and avn had a common origin. 

•f* " It is probable that the primitive signification of rperiian, was, 
simply, to speak, loqui." Junii Etymol. Anglic. But see also Hickes's 
Thesaurus, vol. i. p. 70. 



posite each other*; thus, in Lat., prcesens is prae, be- 
fore, ens, (obs.) being. 

anbplite. 2. n. (anb, before, phtan, to look.) face, coun- 
tenance. Germ, antlitz. 

anbpypban. (anb, back, popb, a word.) to answer. Germ, 

Sngel. 1 . m. an angel. 

Sngelcynn. 1. n. (cyn, kin, tribe, nation.) the English 

angm, -gyn. 1. n. (anb, to, gan, to go.) a beginning. 

Sngli. (Lat.) the Angles. 

Sngol. l.m. an Angle, Englishman. 

anmob. (an, one, mob, mind.) one-minded, unanimous. 

anmoblice. (preced. and lie.) unanimously. 

anps&bner. 3. f. (an, one, pa&b, counsel, intention.) con- 
stancy, perseverance, steadfastness. 

anr yn. 3. f. (anb, before, peon, to see.) face, countenance, 
aspect. Germ, ange-sicht. 

Spor tol. l.m. an apostle. 

aportollic. (preced. and lie.) apostolic. 

apsepan. to rear, build, erect. 

Spcebirceop. l.m. archbishop. 

Spela. Aries, a town in France. 

arenban. to send. 

arpenban. to spend. 

artrgan. perf. aptah. to go, step, climb, ascend. 

ar tpeccan. p. p. aptpeht, to stretch, extend, lay prostrate, 

apeban. perf. apebbe. to rage. 

apeappan, -oppan. to throw away or down, reject, re- 

* See Hickes's Thesaurus, vol. i. p. 69-70. 


apenban. to turn, translate, change. 

apept. adj. waste, empty, desolate. 

apeptan. p. p. apepte, -ceb. to waste, make desolate, de- 

axian. perf. axobe. to ash. Still preserved in several 
provincial dialects. 

B\ contraction for Bircop. 

baepan. bepan. to bear, produce, offer. 

be. bi. big. by, at, of, concerning, according to, in, near*. 
As a prefix, it is, in general, merely augmentative, 
though it sometimes imparts an active signification ; 
as behabban, to surround, begangan, to perform. 

bealcan. to pour out : vulg., to belch. 

beapn. l.n. child, son, boy. vulg. bairn. 

bebeoban. perf. bebeab. (bob, a command?) to command, 

bebob. l.n. (bob, same.) command, commandment, de- 

bebypjian. p. p. bebypgeb. (bypgan, same.) to bury. 

becuman. perf. becom. (cuman, to come.) to come, hap- 
pen, fall, befall. 

bepangen. p. p. of bepon. (pon, to take.) taken, sur- 
rounded, begirt, clad. 

bepeallan. to befall, happen, fall. 

bepopan. before. 

beppman. perf. beppan. (ppiuan, same.) to ask, question, 

behac. l.n. (hat, same.) a promise. 

behealban. perf. beheolb. to behold, see, observe. 

behopian. perf. behopobe. to behove, need, require. 

* See Jamieson on ewt. Herm. Scythicus. 


behpeoprung. 3. f. (hpeop, grief; whence, to rue.) re- 
pentance, penitence. 

ben. l.f. a prayer, petition, supplication. 

beon. to be. 

bepaecan. p. p. bepseht. (psecan, same.) to deceive, de- 

bepeccan. (peccan, to tell.) to say, tell, narrate. 

ber lttan, rather berettan. (be, by or near, rettan, to set.) 
to place, possess, surround, beset 

bertanban. (be, by, rtanban, to stand.) to stand by or 
over ; more frequently, to occupy. 

betpeox. betpyx. betpuxt. betwixt, amongst. 

betpeox Jnrum. betwixt these, in the mean time, 

betpyh o}>pe. amongst others. 

bepepan. perf. bepeop. (pepan, same.) to weep. 

bibban. perf. beeb. to pray, bid, request, entreat, beseech, 
demand, invite. 

bigenga. 2. m. an inhabitant. From the same root as 
bigeng, worship. Thus in Latin, colo, to inhabit, cul- 
tivate, and to worship. 

biggeng, more correctly bigeng. (be, and gan, to go ; or 
bugan, to till, cultivate.) worship. 

bigleopa. 2. m. (big, by*, leopan, to live.) food, provi- 
sion, subsistence. 

bmnon. (mnon, same.) within. 

birceop. bircop. 1. m. a bishop. 

birceop-retl. birceop-rtol. l.n. (fed, seat.) a bishop's 
seat, or see, episcopal throne. 

birc. from beon. 

bi<5. by$. beo$. from beon. 

* See Jamieson on e-in. Herm. Scythicus. 


blirr. 3. f. bliss, joy, exultation. 

blijjian. (blirr.) to rejoice, exult, p. pres. blirprgenbe. re- 
joicing, exulting. 

boc. f. (plur. bee.) a book. Germ. buch. 

boclic. (preced. and lie.) bookly, belonging to books. 

bobian. perf. bobobe. p. pres. bobigenbe. (bob, a com- 
mand.) to preach, proclaim, announce. 

bobung. 3. f. (bob.) a preaching, proclamation. 

bpeort. 3. f. a breast. 

Bpeoten. Bpeten. Britain. 

bpmjan. perf. bpohte. to bring. 

bpoftop. bpobop. 3. m. a brother, indeclinable in the 

bugigenb. l.m. (See biggeng.) an inhabitant. 

buph. bupg. bypig. a city. 

buphpape. pi. (buph, and papu, an inhabitant; from 
yeji.) inhabitants, toivnspeople, citizens. 

buton. butan*. but, except, unless, without. 

byegan. byegean. to buy. 

bylehpitner. 3. f. (byleh? simple, pit, mind f .) simple- 
mindedness, simplicity, meekness. 

Eantpapabypig. (bypig, or buph, a city.) The city of the 

Cantwara or Cantuarii, Canterbury. 
Earepe. 1. m. Ccesar, Emperor. 
ceaprtop. 3. f. (ceapian, to sell, or buy, rtop, a place.) 

a place of sale, forum, market. 
ceartep. cear tp. 3. f. a city, town. 

* See Diversions of Purley on But. 

f Junius derives this from bile, the beak, and hpir, white, " re- 
ferring to the beaks of young birds, then to their nature." See 
Bosworth's Diet, sub voce. 


cepan. perf. cepte. to take, betake, observe, keep. 
cepecmht. See cypecniht. 

cepefting. (cypan, to sell.) things for sale, goods, mer- 
cilbhab. 1 . m. (cilb, child, hab, state.) childhood. 
cipce. 2. f. a church. 
clsen. clean, pure, innocent. 
clypian. perf. clypobe. p. p. clypeb. to speak, call, call 

cnapa. 2. m. a knave, boy, youth. Germ, knabe. 
cniht. 1 . m. a boy, youth, knight. 
Epirt. 1 . m. Christ. 
Epirten. 1 . m. a Christian. 
Epirtenbom. 1. m. (bom, office, state.) Christianity, 

cu8. (cunnan, to know.) known, certain, 
cf contracted for cpaeft. 
cpeejmn. cpeftan. perf. cpsecS. plur. cps&bon. to say, speak, 

cpealm. 1. m. qualm, sickness, pestilence, destruction, 

cpyfte. cpybe. 1. m. a word, saying. 
cyn. l.n. kin, family, tribe, nation. 
cynmg. 1. m. (cyn*.) a king. 
cypecniht. 1 . m. (cypan, to sell, cniht, a youth.) a youth 

offered for sale as a slave, a sale-boy. 
cypman. cypman. 3.m. (ceap, cattle, property ; or cypan, 

to sell.) a chapman, merchant. 
cyppan. perf. cypbe. to return, turn away. 
cyftan. perf. cyftbe. cybbe. (cuS, known.) to make known, 
speak, relate, tell, testify. 

* Kemble's Glossary to Beowulf. 


bsebboc. 3. f. (baeb, action, deed, boc, compensation.) 

deed-reparation, repentance, retribution. 
baeg. 1. m. a day. 
baeghpamhc. (baeg.) daily, 

baegpephc. (ba&g.) efoi/?/. baegfeplic baej, iVaw tfery c?ay. 
bsel. l.m. deal, part, region. 
beaft. l.m. efetftfA. 
Demi, the Deiri, occupying Lancashire, Yorkshire, 

Westmoreland, Cumberland and Durham, 
bema. 2. m. (bom, doom.) a judge, governor, 
beojrol. beojrl. 1 . m. 77*6 devil. 
Dene, the Deiri, 
be$. doth, from bon. 

biaconhab. 1. m. (hab, office, state.) deaconhood, 
bim. dim, dark. 
bom. l.m. doom, judgement, power. As a termination, 

it denotes power, office, state, authority, right, 
bon. to do, make, 

Doppic-ceajxep. Dorobernia. Canterbury, 
bpohcman. perf. bpohtnobe. to converse, live, behave, 
bpohcnung. 3. f. conversation, society, life, conduct. 
bpync. 1 . n. drink. 

bpelian. p. pres. bpehjenbe. (bpylb, sin,) to err. 
bypjxijner. 3. f. (beappan. byppan, to dare ; or bypjxij, 

daring,) presumption, arrogance, 

ea. 3. f. water, a river. 

eac. eke, also, moreover, 

eaca. 2. m. (eac.) an addition, increase, zo eacan, as an 

addition, moreover, besides, 
eabij. (eab, happiness,) happy, blessed, 
eabmoblice. (eaft, gentle, mob, mind,) humbly, 
eahtaog. (eahca, eight) eighty. 


eal. all. 

ealb. comp. ylbpe. superl. ylbert. (ylbu, age.) old, ancient. 

ealboji. 1 . m. (ealb, old.) an elder, chief, prince, leader, 

ealh. altogether. 

eallunga. totally, quite, altogether, entirely, omnino. 

ealmihtig. See iElmihtig. 

ealonb. See lglanb. 

eapjra&rt. (ege, awe, psert, fast.) pious, religious. 

ece. eternal. 

eblean. l.n. (eb, back, lean, a loan.) a reward, recom- 

ep enypjzepeapb. 1 . m. (ep en, even, yppe, inheritance, peapb, 
ward, keeper, possessor.) co-heir. 

epne. lo ! behold ! ecce ! 

ejrftan. (ep pt, a hastening.) to hasten. 

ept. again, after. In composition, again, back again : eb 
has the same import ; and both answer to the Latin re. 

ehtnyp. 3. f. (ehtan, to persecute.) persecution. 

enbe. 1 . m. an end. 

enbung. 3. f. (enbe.) ending, end, death. 

engel. l.m. an angel. 

Gngelcynn. See Xngelcynn. 

Gngla-lanb. the land of the Angles. England. 

englelic. (engel, an angel.) angelic. 

Gnglirc. English. 

en^ol. SeeSn^ol. 

eobe. from gan. 

eopnortlice. (eopnort, earnest.) earnestly, diligently; 
so, now, therefore. 

eop<5e. eapb. 2. f. the earth. 

eop. from ftu. 

eopep. your. 


epcehab. l.m. (epce, arch, hab, office, state.) the archi- 

episcopal dignity. 
eptpull. (ept, love, devotion, yu\\, full.) devout, kind. 
eftel. 1 . m. a country, region. 

paebep. l.m. a father. 

paebepa. 2. m. an uncle by the father s side. 

psegep. fair, beautiful. 

paeplic. (psep, sudden, dreadful.) sudden, unexpected. 

paept. fast. In composition, both as a prefix and postfix, 
it denotes firmness, stability, tenacity ; and is still 
retained in such phrases as "fast-by, fast-asleep, to 
hold fast." Probably the perfect tense of some ob- 
solete root of paapenian, to fasten. 

paepten. l.n. a fast, fasting. 

paept-hapob or hapel. (paept, fast, hapan, same as haebban, 
to have.) fast-having, retentive, tenacious. 

pap. 3. f. (papan, to go.) a journey, expedition, depart- 
ure ; hence fare. 

papan, perf. pepbe. to go, journey, depart. 

papelb. pa&pelb. l.m. (papan.) a journey. 

pealb. (pealban, to fold ; as, in Latin, duplex, triplex, &c. ; 
from plico.) fold; only used in composition. 

peallan. p.pres. peallenbe. to fall. 

peccan. to fetch. 

pela. much, many. 

penman. See pon. 

peop. far. 

peoph. 1. life, countenance. 

peop<5. (yeoyeyi, four.) fourth. 

peopeptig. (peopep.) forty. 

pipta. (pip,^e.) fifth, pipta paebep, fifth father, a great 
grandfathers grandfather. Lat. atavus. 


fleam, l.m. (pleon, to flee.) flight. 

pleon. perf. pleah. to flee, fly. 

pleopenbe. (pres. p. of pleopan, to flow.) flowing. 

pole. 1 . n. folk, people. Germ. volk. 

pon. perf. peng. to take, receive, undertake, begin. 

F°P # - f or > instead of, by reason of, in respect of, on ac- 
count of. 

pope. See Note on pop. 

popepa&b. (pope, forth, pa&cjan, to say.) foresaid. 

popgipan. perf. popgeap. (yop, forth or away, Jipan, to 
give.) to give, grant, forgive, pardon. 

popgytel. (pop, and gytan, to pour out.) forgetful. 

pophsepebnyp. 3. f. (pop, privat. and haebban, to have. 
abs-tineo.) abstinence, continence. 

pophogian. p. pres. yojihop^enbefyoji, privat. and ho^ian, 
to be anxious about.) to neglect, despise. 

pophtung. 3. f. fear. 

poplaetan, -letan. (pop, and letan, to let, permit.) to per- 
mit, suffer, leave, forsake, abandon. 

poppabian. (pope, and hpabian, pabian, to hasten.) to go 
before, prevent, anticipate, seek beforehand. 

* Home Tooke considers j:on the same with " the Gothic sub- 
stantive tAlK-IN/V* Cause, and that it invariably signifies 
Cause and nothing else." See Divers, of Purley, vol. i. p. 366. But 
Dr. Murray derives pop or pojie from fc A]ClvN\ to go, and 
traces out its simple signification as being — before in time, place, 
and circumstances, and, in compounds, forth or forward, and be- 
fore. Hist. Europ. Lang., vol. ii. p. 23. But " when the particle 
has & privative signification, it probably represents the Gothic fra ; 
also in poji^ipan, Flem. vergeeven, to forgive ; which are the col- 
laterals of £:J£AriJ^V^*" See Ta y lor ' s Additional Notes 
to the Diversions of Purley, p. xv. 


popppi£ian. (pop, and ppig, silence.) to be silent, pass over 
in silence. 

pop<5am, -an. sometimes popSon. for that, since, because. 
fopSam ]>e, or pop<5an pe. for that that, because, be- 
cause that. Fr. de ce que. 

popSpapan. perf. popSpepbe. (popo\ forth, away, papan, 
to go.) to go forth, depart, die. 

popftgan^an. p. pres. popo^anjenb, -jenje. (janjan, or 
gan, to go.) to go forth, spread abroad. 

popSpS- 1-ni. (popb 1 , forth, away, yi^, journey.) death, 

pop-pel. much, greatly, pop pel menige, very many. 

poppypb. 3. f. (pop, aivay, and pypb,/afe.) death, destruc- 
tion, ruin. 

ppsetepian. p.p. ppaetepob. (ppsetu, a decoration.) to fret, 

ppam*. from, by. 

Fpancan. the Franks ; the free people. 

ppejnan. perf. ppsejm. ppaegn. to ask, enquire. 

ppemian. to accomplish, perfect, profit, benefit, avail. 

ppeohce. (ppeo, free.) freely. 

pulluht. l.m. baptism. 

pulppemeb. (pull, full, ppemian, to accomplish.) per- 

pulppemeblice. (preced. and lie.) perfectly. 

pulcum. 1 . m. aid, help, a helper. 

pulpiht. same as pulluhc. 

pupftop. further. 

pylpt. f. help, assistance, succour. 

pylptan. (pylpt.) to help, assist. 

* jrpiam or pjrom is the Gothic j^J£HM> Beginning, Origin^ 
and signifies Beginning. Divers. Purley, vol. i. p. 342» 


pyplen. (pyp, p9ep,/ar, from papam) long, distant. 
f yppt. 1 . m. a time, space, period. 

ge. As a prefix, sometimes communicates a metaphori- 
cal signification ; as hypan, to hear ; gehypan, to 
obey. It also assists in forming collective nouns ; as 
gebpojmu, brethren ; gemagap, kindred ; gelaSung, an 
assembly. At a later period it was changed into y ; 
as geclypob, y-cleped. 

ge. and, also, segftepge — ge, as we// — as ; fo^A — and. 

ge. from Su. ye. 

geanbppapian. (See anbppapian.) to answer. 

geanbpypban. p. p. geanbpypb. (See anbpypban.) to an- 

geap. 1 . n. a year. 

geapian. (ap, honour, compassion, pity.) to pardon, 

geapman. geeapman. perf. geapnobe. geeapnobe. to earn, 
gain, obtain, deserve. 

geapo, -pu, -pe. ready, prepared. 

geappupftian. perf. geappupSobe. (ap, honour, peopft, 
worthy.) to honour, respect, reverence. 

gebeb. l.n. (bibban, to pray.) prayer, devotion. 

gebigan. perf. gebigbe. p. p. gebigeb. (bigan, to bow.) 
to bend, incline, turn, convert. 

gebpmgan. p. p. gebpoht. (bpmgan, same.) to bring. 

gebpo<5op. 3. m. a brother, plur. gebpoSpu, -pa. brethren. 

gebypnung. 3. f. (bypn, same.) an example. 

geceopan. perf. geceap. (ceopan, same.) to choose. 

gecigan, -cygan. p. p. gecigeb, -cygeb. (cigan, same.) to 
call, name. 

gecneopblaecan. perf. gecneopblaehte. (cneopb, skilful, 
diligent, and Isecan.) to study. 


gecnypbnyp, -cneopbnyp. 3. f. (cneopb, diligent.) study, 
care, diligence, sincerity. 

gecuman. perf. gecom. (cuman, to come.) to come, come 

gecupan. p. p. gecopen. (cupan, same.) to choose, elect. 

gecpeme. (epeman, to please.) pleasing, gratifying. 

gecynb. 1. n. (cyn.) nature, generation, kind, mode, state. 

gecynbe. adj. natural, innate. 

gecyppan. (cyppan, same.) to turn, turn away, return, 
repent, p. p. gecyppeb, converted, repentant, penitent. 

gecyppebnyp. 3. f. a turning away, conversion. 

gebapman. perf. gebapenobe. p.p. gebapen, (bapnian, 
same.) to become, to be proper ; generally used im- 

gebeopp. l.n. (beopp, same.) tribulation, labour. 

gebihtan. perf. gebihte. (biht, arrangement, command.) 
to arrange, dictate, prepare, compose. 

gebpepebnyp. 3. f. (bpepan, to trouble, harass.) trouble, 

gebpola. 2. m. (bpola, same.) error. 

geepenlaecan. (epen, even, equal, and la&can.) to imitate. 

geenbebypban. perf. geenbebypbne. (enbebyjibmy, order.) 
to ordain, appoint. 

geenbung. 3. f. (enb, end.) end, period, death. 

geps&ptman. perf. gepaeptnobe. (pseptman, same.) to fast- 
en, fix, retain. 

gepeaxe. same as gepeaxob. 

gepeaxob. (peax, hair.) haired, having a profusion of 

gepepa. 2. m. (papan, to go.) a companion, colleague, 

geppemian. perf. geppemobe, -mebe. (ppemian, same.) to 
effect, complete, accomplish. 


gepulhan. p. p. jepullob. (jzullian, same.) to baptize. 

gep ultumian. (pulcum, aid.) to aid, help, assist. 

gepyllan. (pyllan, same.) to fill, fulfill. 

gepypn. (yyji, far.) anciently , formerly . 

ge^lengan. perf. and p. p. geglenbe. (jla&ngc, pomp.) to 
adorn, ornament. 

gegobian. perf. gegobobe. (gobian, to assist, make better, 
from job, good.) to help, assist, enrich, endow. 

gegprpan. p. p. gegpipen. (gpipan, same : whence, to 
gripe.) to seize. 

gehabian. perf. gehabobe. p. p. gehabob. (habian, same, 
from hab, office, state.) to ordain, consecrate. 

gehalgian. p. p. gehalgob. (halgian, to hallow, from hahg, 
holy.) to ordain, consecrate. 

gehatan. p. p. jehaten. (hatan, to call.) to call, bid, pro- 

gehpaep. (hpaep, where.) every where. 

gehpylc, -hpilc. (hpylc, who, which, tvhilk.) every one, 
each, all. 

gehyppumian. (hypan, to hear.) to hear, obey. 

gelaeccan. perf. geleehte. (la&ccan, to seize.) to take, seize, 

gels&ban. p. p. gelseb. (lseban, same.) to lead, bring. 

gelaepeb. (p. p. of gelaepan, to teach.) taught, learned. 

gelaSung. 3. f. (gelaSian, to call together.) a congrega- 
tion, assembly, church. 

geleapa. 2. m. (leaf, same.) leave, permission, belief, faith. 

geleap p ull. believing, faithful. 

gelic. like, equal, hip gelica, his like, equal, peer. 

geheian. perf. gehcobe. to like, please, delight : frequently 
used impersonally. 

jelimpan. perf. gelamp. p. p. gelumpen. to happen : ge- 
nerally used impersonally. 


gelujrp ullian. perf. gelurtpullobe. (lupc, lust, pleasure.) 

to please, delight : frequently impers. 
gelypan. perf. jelypbe. to believe. 
gemahhc. (jemah, same.) eager, earnest, importunate, 

gemahnyr r. 3. f. importunity, perseverance. 
gemetan. p. p. gemet. (mot, a meeting, assembly.) to 

meet, find. 
gemunan, -mynjian, -mynan. perf. gemunbe, -mynte. 

(mynt, remembrance, from mynb, mind.) to remem- 
ber, recollect. 
geminb. l.n. (mynb.) the mind, memory. 
geneabian. p. p. geneabob. (neab, need, necessity.) to force, 

genemnan. p.p. genemneb, -nb. (nemnan, same.) to 

name, call. 
genepian. p. p. genenob. (nepian, same.) to free, deliver, 

gemhtrumlice. (genoh, enough.) plentifully, abundantly. 
geniman. perf. genom, -nam. p. p. genumen, -nummen. 

(niman, same.) to take, take aivay. 
genog. genoh. enow, enough, sufficiently. 
£eo£0(5, -£u<5. 3. f. (geong.) youth. 
geonb. yond, beyond, through, after. 
geong. young, youthful. 
geonjhc. (geong.) young, youthful. 
geopeman. perf. geopenobe. p. p. geopenob. (opeman, 

same.) to open. 
geopn. eager, earnest, anxious, diligent, zealous : hence 

geopnp ul. fervent, eager, anxious, zealous. 
geopnpullice. comp. jeopnpulhcop. earnestly, anxiously, 

diligently, zealously. 


geopnlice. earnestly, anxiously, zealously. 

geopnung. geajinung. a yearning, anxious desire; an 

gepeca. 2. m. (pecan, to rule.) a prcefect, commander, 

gepeccan. p. p. gepehte. (peccan, to reck, care.) to tell, 

explain, show, reckon, number. 
gepeopb. l.n. language, tongue. 
gepihtlsecan. p. p. gepihtlseht;, -leant, (pint, right, and 

la&can.) to set straight, correct, amend, justify. 
gergehjlice. (r^S? happy.) happily. 
ger cylban. (pcylb, a shield.) to shield, defend, protect. 
gereon. perf. gereah. p. p. gerepen. (reon, same.) to see. 
ger etan, -r ettan. perf. geret, -rette. p. p. geret, -rette. 

(rettan, same.) to set, appoint, place, possess. 
ger eftan. p. p. gerefteb. to speak, testify, attest, confirm. 
gepht. geryM), 3. f. (r eon, to see.) sight, vision, aspect, 

gepngan. p. p. gerungen. (pngan, same.) to sing. 
gerlagan. perf. gerloh. p. p. gerlagen. to strike, slay; re 

gerlagen, the person attacked. 
gertanban. perf. gertob. (je, against, r tanban, to stand.) 

to attack, seize. 
gertillan. perf. gertilbe. (rtillan, same.) to still, restrain, 

assuage, mitigate. 
ger unbpullice. (runb, sound, safe.) safely, prosperously. 
gerpican. perf. gerpic. gerpac. to cease, discontinue, de- 
sist from. 
gerpinc. l.n. labour, toil, fatigue, tribulation. 
gerputehan. perf. gerputelobe. p. p. gerputelob. (rputel, 
manifest^) to manifest, exhibit, make known, show 
geryhS. from gereon. he sees. 


ger yllan. perf. gerealbe. (r yllan, same.) to give, present, 
deliver, sell. 

geceal, -cael. l.n. (See getellan.) a number; hence tale. 

gecellan. p. p. getealb. (cellan, to tell, number.) to num- 
ber, reckon. 

gecimbpian. perf. getimbpobe. (timbep, timber.) to build, 

gecogen. (ceon, to draw.) drawn out, instructed, com- 
pleted ; rpa getojen, so learned, so accomplished. 

gec) r an. p. p. jecyb. to show, teach, instruct. 

gepapan. geSapjean. perf. gepapobe. to permit, suffer, 
consent to. 

gefencean, -can. p.p. gepoht, -Jmhc. (Sencan, same.) to 
think, consider. 

ge<5eoban. (Seoban, same.) to join, unite. 

geJnncS. 3.f. (Jnncft, elevation, summit.) honour, dignity. 

geSungen. (geftean, to flourish, prosper*.) illustrious, 
pious, distinguished. 

geupepan. perf. geujrepob. (ujrep, over.) to elevate, exalt. 

geunnan. (unna, leave, permission.) to grant, permit. 

gepapan. m. pi. (papu, an inhabitant ; from yeji.) citizens, 

gepealban. perf. gepeolb. (pealban, to wield.) to rule, go- 
vern, hold, possess. 

gepenban. perf. jepenbe. (penban, to wend, go.) to change, 
go, depart. 

gepeopcan. perf. gepophte. (peopc, work.) to work, per- 
form, celebrate. 

gepeopftan. perf. gepeapft. p. p. gepopben. (peop<5an, or 
pypSan, same.) to be, to be made or done. 

* See Lye, sub voce. Elsewhere he derives ^e^un^en from ge- 
^m^ian, to obtain. 


gepilman. perf. gepilnobe. (pilla, the will.) to desire, long 

gepilnung. 3. f. (pilla.) desire, appetite. 

gepiplice. (pip, wise.) wisely, prudently: also certainly, 
indeed, especially. 

gepita. 2. m. (pitan, to know.) witness. 

gepitan. perf. gepat. gepit. to depart. 

gepitman. (pite, punishment.) to lament, bewail, repent. 

geppit. 1 . n. (pmt, same.) a writ, writing, letter, epistle. 

gepuna. 2. m. (puna, same.) custom, wont, practice, rite. 

geynrian. (yppe, ire, anger.) to be angry vnth, to punish. 

gipu. 3. f. (gipan, to give.) a gift, favour. 

gilb. l.n. tax, tribute, pay ; worship. 

gipla. gypla. 2. m. a robe, vestment, garment. 

Jjob. l.m. God. 

gob. good. 

gobcunb. (liob, God, cyn, kin.) divine. 

gobppelhan. (gob, good, rpell, history, tale, message : ev- 
ayyekiov : gospel.) to preach the gospel, to preach. 

golb. l.n. gold. 

gnam. 2. m. anger, indignation. 

gpecipc. Greekish, Greek. 

gumenian. perf. gumenobe. to allude to, play upon or 

SYF- Ph (SP 11 * t0 give*.) if. 

gylt. 1. m. guilt, fault, crime, sin, debt. 

gym. 1. m. a gem. 

gyman. to care, take care, gymenne bon. to exercise or 

manifest care or anxiety. 
gyt. (eri-f.) yet, still, gyt Sa. yet, as yet, yet then, more- 

* See Diversions of Purley. t Herm. Scythic. 


habban. perf. haepbe. p. p. haepeb. to have. 

hab. 1 . m. head, height, office, dignity. As a postfix, it 
denotes order, office, degree, state, quality, &c, and 
is the origin of the modern terminations hood and 
/lead : as ppeor thab, priesthood. 

habian. perf. habobe. (hab*.) to ordain, consecrate. 

habung. 3. f. (hab.) ordination, consecration. 

paelenb. l.m. (hdelu, health.) the Healer, the Saviour. 

haelu. 3. f. (hal, sound.) health, healing, salvation, safety. 

hser. 3. f. command, precept, mandate. 

haeften. a heathen, pagan. 

haeSennyr. 3. f. heathenism. 

ha&ftenrcype. l.m. (rcype, state.) heathenship, heathenism. 

hal. hale, ichole, sound. 

halja. more properly hahg. (hal, sound.) holy, sacred. 

haljena. gen. plur. of halja. 

halpaii. perf. half obe. (half, the neck ?,) to entreat, be- 
seech, call to witness. 

hanb. 3. f. the hand. 

hacan. perf. haet. p. p. hatce. haten. to call, name, com- 
mand: whence hight. 

he, heo, hit, or hyt. he, she, it. 

heah. high. 

healban. perf. heolb. p. p. healben. to hold. 

heapbnyf . 3. f. (heapb, hard.) hardness, obduracy. 

heofob. (p. p. of heapan.) heaved, raised up: as an adj. 
chief, principal, head. 

heopon. 1. m. (heapan, to heave, lift up, heapen, heaved.) 

heoponhc. heavenly, celestial. 

* See Note on hab in the Glossary to Kemble's Translation of 


heoping. 3. f. lamentation. 

heom, for him, dat. plur. of he. 

heopa. for hipa, gen. plur. of he. 

heopte. 3. f. the heart. 

hep. here, in this year, at this time. 

hepigen&hce. (hepian, to praise.} laudably. 

hibep. hither. 

hine, from he. 

hip. l.n. hue, complexion, appearance, form. 

hlaban. perf. hlob. to lade, take up as with a ladle, draw 
in, imbibe. 

hlir a. 2. m. fame, reputation, humour, opinion. 

hof. a house, a cave. 

hogian. perf. hogobe. to study, meditate, consider, be 
anxious about, care for. 

hpaeblice. (hpseb, swift.} swiftly, speedily, quickly, sud- 

hpafte. quickly, early, soon % . Of this word, rather is the 

hpeorung. hpeoprung. 3. f. (hpeop, grief.) penitence, 

ppojie-ceartep. Rochester. 

hu. how. 

hugu. a little, at least. 

pumbpa. 2. m. the river Humber. 

hunb. a hundred. Expletive, when prefixed to the nu- 
merals from 70 to 120f . 

hunig. l.n. honey. 

hupu. moreover, at least, only. 

* " The rathe primrose that forsaken dies." Milton's Lycidas. 
f Lye's Diet, sub voce ; and the Glossary of Junius to the Moeso- 
Gothic Gospels. 


huj\ l.n. a house. 

hpa&t. (neut. of hpa.) what, hpset Sa. what then ; there- 
fore, thereupon, ppa hpa&c ppa, so what so, whatsoever. 

hpaeSep j>e. whether or. 

hpil, 3. f. a while, time, period, interval. "Sa hpile ; the 
while, at the time*. % 

hpilc. hpylc. who, which, whilk, what, every one. hpylce 
hugu, some few. 

hpit. white. 

hpon. a little, somewhat, paullulum, aliquantum. 

hy. for hi. accus. fern, of he. 

Ic. L 

ibel. idle, vain, empty, useless. 

rglanb. l.n. (frequently ealanb, from ea, water, lanb, 

land.) an island. 
mcunb. (in, in, cunnan, to know.) well-known, internal, 

lnpaeji. m. (in, in, pajian, to go.) an entrance. 
mcmga. 2. m. cause, reason, sake, pretext, fault. 
mpeajib. mnepeajib. inward. 
lp. from pepan. to be. 
lptojna. (Greek.) history. 
iu. formerly, of old. m aen, formerly; whence, yore. (5a 

iu, even then, jam turn. 

la. la ! oh ! lo ! behold ! sometimes interrogative and 

lacf. a gift, present, offering. 
lsecan. (from lie, quasi lican.) In the termination of 

* " Then go — but go alone the while." 
f " Of all genders." Thorpe's Analecta. 


verbs frequently implies similitude or approximation, 
as ej: enlsecan, to imitate, equal. 

lanb. l.n. land, the earth, ground, a region, country. 

lange. adv. (lang, long.) long, lange aeji. long before. 

langr urn. longsome, long, tedious, slow. 

lap, 3. f. lore, learning, doctrine, advice. 

lajieop. 1 . m. (laji.) a teacher, master, instructor. 

leapeb. (from leob ; as XdiKos from Xaos.) lay, not clerical. 

Leben. Latin. 

leob. 3. f. a people, province, nation. 

leoj:. (lupian.) loved, beloved, leojzert. leopopt. most be- 
loved, dearly beloved. 

leopan. lybban. perf. leopobe. (lip.) to live. 

leoht. adj. (leoht, subst. light, lux.) light, pure, bright, 

Letania. (Lat.) litany. 

lie. l.n. a body (dead), a corpse, flesh. 

lie. (from lie, a body.) As a terminal suffix, it denotes 
affinity or likeness, and is the parent of the modern 
terminations like and ly % . 

lichama. 2. m. (lie, shape, body, ham, a covering f.) a 
body (living), flesh. 

* According to Dr. Murray, the Gothic i\(5lK., a b°dy, pro- 
bably first signified shape or form, from an obsolete root denoting, 
primarily, to lay, and, then, coincidence or agreement. That which 
agrees with another is similar, and similarity, in matter or mind, 
was expressed by JYGIK, or ^ 1C * -^ic an ^ tne terminal lis and 
le of many Latin words and lick in German, appear frequently to 
have the signification of hold, possess, or pertain to. (See Hist. 
Europ. Lang.) To this it may be added, that, in Greek, the ter- 
minal eidrjs and ei/ceXos, corresponding with the Gothic A.GIK. 
and Anglo-Saxon lie, are from eidos, a form, and euaov, an image. 

t Murray's Europ. Lang. 


hcian. perf. hcobe. to like ; also impers. to please. 

lip. lyp. 1. n. life. 

hpian. (hp.) perf. lypobe. 3. pers. plur. lypbon. hpbon. to 

hue. same as lip. be hip halban hue. in his sound life ; 

in the prime of life. 
lop. 1 . n. praise. 

lupian. perf. lupobe. (lupu.) to love. 
luptyme. (lupu, love, tyman, to teem, bring forth.) lovely, 

pleasant, delightful. 
lupu. 3. f. love, affection. 
Lunben-pape. (papu, an inhabitant.) the inhabitants or 

citizens of London. 
Lunben-pic. (pic, a dwelling, abode, retreat ; vicus ; a 

frequent termination of the names of places.) Lon- 
lybbenbe. p. pres. of lybban. See leopian. 
lypnep. 3. f. (lypan, to permit, grant.) leave, permission, 


ma. more. 

maej. mag. l.m. a relation, kinsman, ancestor, parent. 

maegen. 1. n. main, might, strength, power, virtue. 

maegS. 3. f. (niaej, a relation.) family, race, province, 

maepe. great, distinguished, exalted, illustrious, su- 

ma&ppian. (maepe.) to magnify, exalt, glorify. 

maeppe-peap. l.n. (maeppa, mass, peap, robe.) the mass 
robe or sacerdotal garment. 

magan. to be able, indef. maeg. may. perf. miht. might. 

man. l.n. evil, wickedness, sin, crime. 

man. niann. 3. m. plur. men and manna, a man. 



man. (indeclinable.) one, anyone; like the French On ; 

as, man rs&be ; on dit ; they said. 
mancpealm. l.m. (man, evil, cpealm, qualm, sickness?) 

a terrible disease, plague, pestilence. 
manr.ullice. (man, wickedness.) ivickedly, sinfully. 
manian. perf. manobe. to advise, admonish, warn, ex- 
manig. ma&nrg. many, menigeo. menrgu. the many, a 

nianigpealb. maenigjrealb. (nianig, many, r.ealb, fold.) 

mannrgenne. from manian. 
mape. more: greater. 
maptyp. maptrp. l.m. a martyr. 
me. from ic. 
meb. 3. f. meed, reward. 
mennirc. (man.) human : a human being, man. Germ. 

mete, mette. l.m. meat, food. 
micclum. myclum. much, greatly, earnestly. 
micel. mycel. mickle, much, great. 
mib. with. 
mibbaneapb, -geapb*. 1. m. (mibb, mid, middle, eapb, 

earth.) the earth, world. 
mibbaneapblic. earthly, worldly, temporal. 
miht. See magan. 
mil. 3. f. a mile. 

milbheopte. (milb, mild, heopte, heart?) mild-hearted. 
milbheoptner, -nyr. 3. f. mild-heartedness, mercy. 

* " The earth or world was so named on account of the Teutonic 
belief that it was formed in the void between the worlds of per- 
petual fire and perpetual frost." Murray's Europ. Lang. 


milcrian. (milcr, mercy, pity.) to pity, compassionate, be 

miltrung. 3. f. mercy, compassion. 
min. my. 

mob. l.n. mood, mind. 

moboji. 3. f. a mother, mobpu. mobbpu. mothers. 
monab. (from monian, same as maman.) advised. 
monS. monao 1 . l.m. a month. 
mopgen. mopigen. 1 . m. morning. 
mort. (defective.) must, might, or ought. 
mot. (defective.) / may, can, or am able. 
munuc. munec. l.m. a monk. 
munuchab. l.m. (hab, state.) monkhood. 
murmchc. monklike, monkish, belonging to a monk. 
munuchf. l.n. (lip, life.) monastic life, a monastery. 
limb*. 1 . m. mouth. 
mycelnyr. 3. f. (mycel.) greatness. 
mynegung. 3. f. advice, admonition, exhortation. 
mynrfceji. 1 . n. a minster, monastery. 

ns&fpe. (ne aeppe.) never. 

naen. neenne. (ne sen. ne senne.) no one. 

nsepe. (ne psepe.) might not be. 

nser. (ne pser.) was not. 

nama. 2. m. a name. 

nan. (ne an.) no one, none. 

nate. not. 

naterhpon. (naceftaer hpon.) not this little, by no means. 

on no account. 
ne. not, neither. 

nemnan. p. p. nemneb. (nama^ a name.) to name, call. 
next, (superlat. of neah, nigh.) nearest or next, set 

nextan, at the next, at last. 
d 2 


nighpopfen. (neah, near, lately, or nip, new, hpeopfan, 

to turn J) newly or lately converted. 
mllan. nyllan. perf. nolbe. (ne pillan, ne polbe. Lat. nolle. 

i. e. ne velle.) to be unwilling \ not to will, to nill*. 
mr. nyr. (ne if.) is not. 
nip. new. 

mpan. (nip, new.) lately, recently. 
nu. now. 

off. of, from, out of 

ofaxian. perf. ofaxobe. (axian, to ask.) to ask of, learn 

by asking. 
of cuman. perf. of cumon. (en man.) to come from, to be 

derived from. 
ofep. over, above, upon. 
or epeac. 2. m. (of ep, and eaca, an addition.) remainder, 

overplus, surplus. 
Ofeprtrgan. perf. Ofeprtah. (ofep, over, r ti^an, to climb, 

ascend.) to pass over, excel, exceed, surpass. 
of tan. (jan, to go.) to go forwards, go out ; to go against, 

require, demand, seek, request. 
Offettan. p. p. ofret. (of, over or a,gainst\, rettan, to 

set. Lat. op-pono, op-primo.) to oppose, oppress, 

offlean. perf. offloh. p.p. ofrlegen, -rlajen. (flean, same.) 

to slay, strike. 

* " That will he, nill he, to the great house 

He went " Gray. 

f See Divers, of Purley, vol. i. p. 367 et seq. where it is main- 
tained that of is a fragment of the Gothic /VfcA RA' posteri- 
tas, and Anglo-Saxon Xjzoria, proles, and denotes consequence, off- 
spring, &c. In composition, it generally retains this meaning. 
% Hermes Scythic. page 104. 


opt. oft, often. 

on. on, in, into, with, during. In composition, upwards, 
upon, over, forward: sometimes privative and equi- 
valent to un. 

onbpaeban. perf. onbpeb. to dread, fear. 

ongean. (on, forwards, gan, to go.) again, against, to- 
wards ; to meet. Lat. ob-viam. 

onginnan. perf. ongan. p. p. ongunnen. (on and gan.) 
to begin, commence, undertake. 

ongunnon. perf. plar. of ongmnan. 

onrenban. (renban, to send.) to send to, send forth. 

onpgan. p. pres. onpgenbe. (pgan, to fall.) to fall upon, 
impend, threaten, increase. 

ojiftian. to breathe. 

op-tpupian. (op, usually privative, cpupian, to trust.) to 
distrust, despair. 

o$. until, unto, as far as, as long as. 

oftep. other. 

oj)3e. or. 

paellen. purple. 

pallium. (Lat.) a robe, pall. 

Papa. (Lat.) the Pope. 

papanhab. l.m. (hab, office, state.) the popedom. 

papbom, l.m. (bom, office, state.) the popedom. 

pijxel. pircol. 1 . m. (Lat. epistola.) an epistle, letter. 

pleogan. rather plegian. perf. pleogebe. (plega, plug.) 

to play. 
ppeojxhab. (ppeorc, a priest, had, office, state.) priesthood. 

]\&b. l.m. counsel, advice; that which results from 

counsel ; advantage, benefit. 
jieab. red. 

r _ "_ 

:- v 



fcipman. (rcip, a ship.) a ship-man, merchant. 

fcopthce. (j*copt, short.) shortly, briefly. 

fcylbig. (fcylb, debt, guilt, crime, from rcealan, to owe*.) 

fcyppenb. l.m. (rcyppan, to shape, create.) Creator. 

re, reo, J?a*t. the, he, who, which, that. 

recgan. perf. ra?be. to say. 

regen. raegen. f. (recgan.) a saying, tradition, report. 

fen ban. perf. renbe. to send. 

reojzon. seven. 

reoponpealb. sevenfold. 

reopSa. seventh. 

retl. rtol. l.n. a seat, throne. Settle is still preserved 
in some provincial terms ; as lang-settle. 

pccetung. 3. f. a sigh, groan. 

rinjrull. rynpull. (fyn.) sinful, wicked : as a noun, a sin- 

r ingal. frequent, continual, incessant. 

r mgallice. continually, perpetually. 

ringan. perf. rang, p. p. rungen, to sing. 

fi(5. adv. lately, afterwards. 

ric^San (ri'5 to (5am.) after that, after, afterwards, then, 

fix. six. 

rlaege. f lege. 1 • ni. slaying, slaughter, destruction, death. 

fly he. 3. f. slaughter, havoc. 

f ona. soon, fona hpafte. immediately, very soon. 

ro<5. true, sooth. 

roSpa^rcner. -nyr. 3. f. (fob 1 , true, y&yt, fast.) truth, sin- 
cerity, faith, integrity. 

foShce. (fob 1 .) truly, verily. 

* See Murray's Europ. Lang. vol. i. p. 219. 


poftpe. from roS. 

pppecan. (pppsec, speech.) to speak. 

rtanban. perf. ptob. to stand. 

pteppan. ptsappan. to step, advance. 

rti(51ice. (pfcio 1 , hard, severe.) hardly, severely ; compar. 

ptjia&fc. 3.f. a street. 

ptpec. brave, strong, mighty, powerful. 

rum*, some, some one, something, a certain one. Both 
as a prefix and postfix, it usually retains its prono- 
minal character and import, and generally implies a 
portion of any thing, or a slight degree of diminu- 
tion, like its offspring, the modern some ; as r umSinj 
rcoptlice, somewhat briefly ; pmpum, some joy, joyous. 

punbpig. sundry, different, various, frequent. 

ruS. south. 

ppa. so, thus, as. ppa ppa, so as ; r pa hpa ppa, so who so, 
whosoever ; ppa hpa^t ppa, ivhatsoever ; ppa (5eah, so 
though ; yet, nevertheless. 

ppeapt. swart, swarthy, blach. 

ppegan. (jpe^, a sound, noise.) to sound, signify, mean. 

ppeltan. to die. The word, beaft, is sometimes added, by 
pleonasm, for the sake of emphasis. 

ppetnep. -nyp. 3. f. (fpefce, sweet.) sweetness. 

}yox:\iQ. (comp. of ppete.) sweeter. 

ppilc. ppylc. (ppa lie.) such, ppilcum. to such, j p^lce. so, 
as, as if; eac ppylce. so also. 

* yum, which is manifestly from the Gothic St1MS> appears 
to have no connection whatever, or, at least, a very remote affinity 
with the Greek cw/ia, a body, from which Meric Casaubon and 
others, in their zeal to prove Greek the parent language, wish to 
derive it. See Casaubon de Ling. Anglo-Sax. 


ppincan. to labour, be fatigued with labour*. 

rpmjel. 3. f. (ppinj, same.) stripe, chastisement, affliction. 

ppiSe. ppyfte. very, much, greatly. 

ppopecan. perf. ppopete. to breathe, to sigh. 

ppupb. ppeopb. l.n. a sword. 

pputehce. (p putel, manifest.) manifestly, openly, plainly. 

pylp. self, same, he pylp. he himself, accus. hine pylpne. 

pyllan. perf. pealbe. to give, present, sell. 

rymlle. pimle. ever, always, constantly. 

pyn. 3. f. sin. 

pynbon. pynb. py. from pepan, to be. 

tacen. tacn. 1. n. a token, sign, miracle. 

tsecan. perf. ta&hte. to teach, instruct, direct, show. 

ceap. 1 . m. a tear. 

ceon. rather ceogan. perf. teah. to tug, tow, draw, heave. 

tib. 3. f. tide, time, hour. 

cihtan. perf. cihce. to exhort, persuade, allure, draw. 

cihtmg. exhortation, persuasion. 

tima. 2. m. time. 

co. too. 

tof . to, after, for, as, at, from, in, until. In composition, 
it sometimes denotes excess, approximation or ad- 
vance, but is more frequently a mere syllabic aug- 

cobpecan. to break, destroy. 

tocepan. perf. tocsep. to tear, tear in pieces. 

* " what time the labour'd ox 

In his loose traces from the furrow came, 
And the swinkt hedger at his supper sat." 

Milton's Comus. 
f to is the Gothic substantive T/Vfll or T jVflllTS 
act, effect, result, and denotes act, end. Divers, of Purley. 


co ]>am. to that, to that degree, so : Co fam ppy'Se, so 
much> so terribly. Co ]>y. to the end that. 

copepb, -peapb, -peapbe. (co, to, or forward, peop<5an, to 
be ; or peapb, ward, expressing situation, direction.) 
as a preposition, toward: as a participle or partici- 
pial adjective, it denotes futurity, about to be, about 
to come, futurus-a-um. 

cpahc. an exposition, commentary, cpahc-boc. an expo- 
sition -book, treatise. 

cpupa. 2. m. faith, confidence. 

cpymnyp. 3. f. (cpum, strong.) stay, support ; exhortation. 

cpa. two. 

cyn. ten. 

un. as a prefix, is always privative. 

unbep. under, among. 

unbeppengan. perf. unbeppeng. ,pres. p. unbepponbe. 

(penman, to take.) to take, undertake, receive, provide. 
unbepgycan. perf. unbepgeac. (gycan, for gepican, to 

know.) to know, perceive, understand. 
unbepfteoban. perf. unbepfteobbe. p. p. unbepSeobbe. 

(unbep, and fteoben, a king, ruler ; or 8eob, a nation.) 

to subdue, subject. 
unpceaftrg. (un, not, pceafta, miscreant, ivretch.) innocent. 
uncpumnyp. 3. f. (un, not, Cpum, strong, in-firmus.) in- 
firmity, indisposition. 
un(5ancpyp<5. (un, not, Sane, thanks, people, worthy.) 

ungrateful, unpleasing. 
up. (upa, high*.) as a prefix, denotes motion upwards. 
upapsepan. (up, and apeepian, to rear.) to uprear, raise 

or lift up. 
uplic. supreme, heavenly. 

* Divers, of Purlev. 


upe. our. 

up. from ic. /. 

uton. utun. (Adverbiwn hortandi ; age, agite, agedum.) 
Let us. It governs the verb following in the infill. 
mood, as uton pleon, let us flee ; uton gemunan, let 
us remember ; uton apenban, let us turn. 

pac. weak, vile, mean, humble. 

pacol. (paean, to wake.) wakeful, watchful. JPacolpe. 

The same as Vigilantius in Latin, and Yp-qyopws in 

Greek : the Watchful. 
pacollice. wakefully, anxiously. 
paecca. 2. m. a leaking, watching. 
pgepelr. l.n. (paepan, to cover.) a covering, robe, cloak, 

paeg. peg. 1. m. a way. 
pae la pa. (pa, woe, la, oh !) woe, oh, woe ! alas, alas ! 

well-a-way % ! 
paep, pep, paejion. paepe. pepon. peape. from peran. 
paeptm. 1 . m. fruit. 
paeptmbaepe. paeptmbepenb. (paeptm, fruit, ba&jian, to 

bear.) fruit-bearing, fruitful. 
pape. (plur.) wares, merchandize, goods. 
pe. plural of ic. 
pealhptob. l.m. (pealh, a foreigner, jxebe, a place, in 

place, instead ; as, in lieu, from Fr. lieu, a place.) 

one in the place of a foreigner, an interpreter. 

* Well-a-day, is pae la fcssj. a For, well-a-day, their elate was 
fled." Woe worth, r^e people ; vae sit. 

" Woe worth the chase, woe worth the day, 
That costs thy life, my gallant grey ! " 

Lady of the Lake. 


pel. psel. well; sufficiently, very ; in the latter sense it 
is still retained in such expressions as well nigh. 

peopc. 1 . n. work. 

peopft, or pupomynt. 3. f. (people, worthy, mynt, re- 
membrance.) honour, reverence, dignity, glory. 

peopftan. perf. peapb ; in the plural peopbon. pupbon. 
popbon. to he, be made, become. 

pep. 1 . m. a man, husband. The termination ep, pro- 
bably a contraction of yeji, usually denotes the mas- 
culine gender, as peopm-ep, a food-man, or farmer*. 

peran. indef. eom. perf. peer, to be. 

pilla. pylla. 2. m. the will. 

pillan. pyllan. perf. polbe. to will, wish. 

pilnian. perf. pilnobe. (pilla, the will.) to will, desire. 

pmrum. pynrum. (yy^joy, delight.) winsome, pleasant, 

pmtep. 3. m. winter. The northern nations reckoned by 

pip. wise, prudent. 

pita. 2. m. (pitan, to know.) a wise man, a counsellor, 
prince, noble, pitena-gemot, the assembly of the wise, 
or Saxon Parliament. 

pitan. indef. and perf. pat. to know, perceive, understand : 
hence wot. 

pite. 1 . n. punishment, torment, plague, calamity, evil. 

pitega. 2. in. (pitan.) a prophet, wise man. 

pitoblice. (pitan, to know, to wit. Lat. scilicet, i. e. scire 
licet. Fr. savoir.) for, truly, verily. 

piftepian. indef. piftepige. pres. p. piSepigenbe. (piSep, 
against, contrary.) to oppose, resist. 

* See Jamieson's Kerm. Scythic. and Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon 



pifonnan*. within, 

piftutan*. tvithout. 

plite. 1 . m. splendour, grace, beauty. 

plitij. (plite.) splendid, graceful, beautiful. 

pobnep-baeg. l.m. (J?oben, Woden, a Saxon deity, baej, 

a day.) Wednesday. 
pop. 1 . m. (pepan, to weep.) weeping, lamentation, cry ; 

hence whoop. 
popb. 1. n. a word. 
populb. poplb. 3. f. the world. 
pojmlblic. worldlike, worldly. 
ppsecpiS. l.m. (ppaec, exile, fift, a journey.) journey, 

banishment, pilgrimage. 
ppecan. (ppacu, vengeance.) to wreak, punish, avenge. 
puce. 2. f. a week. 
pulbep. -op. l.m. glory, honour. 
pulboppullice. gloriously, honourably. 
punbop. 1 . n. a wonder, miracle. 
punbpian. pres. p. punbpigenbe. to wonder, admire. 
puman. to dwell, remain, continue. 
punung. 3. f. a habitation, dwelling. 
pupbe. pypbe. perf. subjunc. of peopSan. 
pylm. 1 . m. warmth, heat, anger, ardour, zeal. 

ypel. l.n. evil. 
ypel. evil, wicked. 
ylc. ilk, same. 

ylbing. 3. f. (ylbu, age.) delay. 
ylbpa. from ealb. 

ymb. ymbe. (embef .) about, after, concerning, accord- 
ing to. In composition, about. 

* See Divers, of Purley. 

t Corresponding to the Greek a/x0t. See Jamieson. 


ymberppaec. 3. f. (ymbe, about, rppaec, speech?) dis- 
course, conversation, observation, opinion, 

ypjrnumma. 2. m. (yppe, inheritance, mman, to take.) 
an heir. 

yppe. 1 . m. ire, anger. 

yte. comp. ytepe. yttpa. (ut, out.) outward, external. 

8a. from re. also, this, that, these or those, they, who, 

whom. 8a 8e. that who, that which. 8a gyt. then yet, 

yet, moreover. 
8a. (adv.) <$e^, when, as, tvhilst, until, 
ft&yi. there. 

8s&pto. thereto, in addition to this. 
8ser. ybr tfAafs, therefore, after. 8ser 8e. because that, from 

the time, after; ex quo, postquam. rona hpa8e 8ser 

8e. as soon as possible. 
8s&rlice. (8ser, o/* $*s ? hc ? like.) in the same manner, 

8aet. see re. 
8s&t. (conjunct.*) that 
8 an, same as 8am, from re. eep J?an or J?am J?e, ere rt«^ 

that, before that. 
8ancian. perf. 8ancobe. to thank. 
8anon. (on 8am.) in that, from thence, thence, whence. 
8e. (for re.) the, who, which, that. 
8e. from 8u. 
8e. that, or. hpaa8ep — ]?e : whether — or. 8e r pa 8eah, 

that though thus, nevertheless. 
8eah. though, although, if yet, still. 
tpeapp. 3. f. need, necessity. 

* See Divers, of Purley, vol. i. pp. 84 and 274. 

t \ had a hard sound, as in >inj, and ft a softer sound, as in 


p eapp. poor, needy, destitute. 

peappan. to need, be in need, require, consider neces- 

peap. 1 . m. custom, rite, institution, law ; plur. manners, 

penian. perf. penobe. (pegen. a thane, servant.) to serve, 
minister, wait upon, administer. 

peob. 3. f. a nation, province, people. 

peon. perf. peah. pres. p. peonbe. to grow up, increase* 
thrive, advance, succeed. 

peop. 1 . m. a servant. 

peopbom. Lm. (peop, and bom, state, condition.) ser- 

peopian. perf. peopobe. p. pres. peopigenbe. (peop.) to 

Sep, Seop, Sir. this. 

Si. Sy. used for all cases of the article and pronoun, but 
principally for Sam. pop pi, for this, for this cause, 
wherefore, idcirco. to pi, to the end that. 

pibep. thither. 

Sin, Sine, Sin. (Su, thou.) thy, thine. 

ping. 1. n. a thing, work, goods. 

polian. perf. polobe. infin. polijenne. to suffer, bear, en- 

Son. for Sam. Son ma. the more so. 

Sonne, then, when, than. 

poppan. perf. Sopjzte. same as Seapjran. 

ppeo. three. 

ppitcrgoSe. (ppy, three, whence ppittig, thirty.) thirtieth. 

ppohtu. 3. f. the throat. 

ofteji; but the distinction was frequently disregarded by Anglo- 
Saxon writers. See Rask and Bosworth. 


ppopian. perf. ppopobe. to suffer. 

]>popimg. 3. f. suffering, passion. 

Su. thou. 

Jnrph*. thorough, through, by, by means of, on account 


Jmphpuman. perf. puphpimobe. (punian, to dwell, re- 
main?) to continue, remain, persevere. 

Jmprtig. (pujiyt, thirst.) thirsty. 

6 up. thus. 

ppypnyp. 3. f. (}>peop ? crooked, perverse.) perverseness, 

fyrtpu. (plur.) l.n. darkness. 

* Home Tooke shows, almost incontrovertibly, that ]?unh is from 
the Gothic dL/VflJCS' or ^ e teutonic substantive, Thuruh, 
and means a door, gate, passage. Divers, of Purley, vol. i. ch. 9. 
p. 334. Junius appears inclined to a similar etymon. See Etymol. 
Anglic, under Through. 





' 0003 239 422 A 


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